Optimised software, patient setting, and intraoperative use of iPad
The first clinical experiences with iPad-assisted puncturing of the collecting system prior to a percutaneous nephrolithotripsy were described by Rassweiler et al. in 2012.
A clinical study comparing iPad-assisted versus standard fluoroscopy-guided puncture of the renal pelvis has been started to show the benefit of this technique in cases with complex nephrolithiasis.
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