Urology Cheat Sheets

Optimise your understanding of the EAU Guidelines with the Urology Cheat Sheets. These offer a simple and quick way to get an overview of the latest EAU Guidelines.

Urology Cheat Sheets summarises the main content regarding epidemiology, diagnosis, management and evaluation in a handy one-sheet synopsis per guideline. The Urology Cheat Sheets will be regularly updated and completed in the coming months.


Epidemiology, diagnosis and disease management

Neuro-urological symptoms may be caused by a variety of diseases and events affecting the nervous system controlling the lower urinary tract (LUT). The resulting symptoms depend predominantly on the location and extent of the neurological lesion.

Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

Epidemiology, staging and diagnosis

Bladder cancer (BC) is the 7th most commonly diagnosed cancer in males, with tobacco smoking as the main risk factor, accounting for approximately 50% of cases. Approximately 75% of patients with BC are non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas (NMIBC): disease confined to the urothelium (stage Ta), carcinoma in situ or lamina propria (stage T1).

Chronic Pelvic Pain

Epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis

Chronic primary pelvic pain syndrome (CPPPS) is the occurrence of chronic pelvic pain when there is no proven infection or other obvious local pathology that may account for the pain. It is often associated with negative cognitive, behavioural, sexual or emotional consequences, and with symptoms suggestive of lower urinary tract, sexual, bowel or gynaecological dysfunction.

Prostate Cancer: Part II

Diagnostic evaluation II

Prostate cancer (PCa) is estimated as the 4th most common cancer in Europe, and is the most frequent cancer and 3rd predicted cause of all cancer deaths among males. Review the EAU Guidelines on diagnosis, imaging and clinical staging for establishing a best-practice treatment path.

Non-Neurogenic Female LUTS

Epidemiology, classification and diagnosis

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common occurrence for women and cause a great deal of distress. The average estimated prevalence is 66.6%. LUTS are often classified into clinical syndromes such as overactive bladder (OAB), underactive bladder (UAB), UI, nocturia or dysfunctional voiding.

Prostate Cancer: Part I

Epidemiology, aetiology, classification and diagnosis

Prostate cancer (PCa) is estimated as the 4th most common cancer in Europe, and is the most frequent cancer and 3rd predicted cause of all cancer deaths among males. Incidence and disease stage distribution patterns follow biological, genetic, and/or lifestyle factors, but are also influenced by (inter)national organisations' recommendations on the use of PSA testing.

Primary Urethral Carcinoma

Epidemiology, aetiology, classification and diagnosis

Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is classified as a rare cancer, accounting for <1% of all genitourinary malignancies. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the predominant histological type, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC). Review the staging, classification, and diagnostic evaluation techniques for PUC in this sheet.

Non-Neurogenic Male LUTS

Epidemiology, aetiology and diagnosis

LUTS have traditionally been related to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Increasing numbers of studies show that LUTS are often unrelated to the prostate. Bladder dysfunction may also cause LUTS, as well as other structural or functional abnormalities.

Muscle-Invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer

Epidemiology, pathology and diagnosis

Bladder cancer (BC) is the 7th most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. Incidence and mortality rates vary across countries. For about 35% of patients, bladder cancer is either muscle-invasive or metastatic at disease presentation. Non-muscle invasive disease can progress to become muscle-invasive bladder cancer later on in the disease course.


Epidemiology, aetiology, classification and diagnosis

Urinary stones can be classified according to aetiology of stone formation, stone composition (mineralogy), stone size, stone location, and X-ray characteristics of the stone. Stone incidence depends on geographical, climatic, ethnic, dietary and genetic factors. The recurrence risk is determined by the disease or disorder causing the stone formation. Prevalence rates vary from 1% to 20%. Emerging evidence links nephrolithiasis to the risk of chronic kidney disease.

Urethral Strictures

Definition, epidemiology, aetiology, classification and diagnostic evaluation

In males, urethral stricture is defined as a narrowed segment of the urethra due to a process of fibrosis and cicatrisation of the mucosa and surrounding tissue. Meatal stenosis is generally accepted as a short distal narrowing at the meatus, without involvement of the fossa navicularis. Female urethral stricture is defined as a ‘fixed anatomical narrowing’ causing reduced urethral calibre. Majority of series define a urethral calibre < 14 Fr as diagnostic for female stricture.

Sexual and Reproductive Health

Male hypogonadism: epidemiology and prevalence

Male hypogonadism is characterized by decreased production of androgens and/or impaired sperm production caused by poor testicular function or as a result of inadequate stimulation of the testes by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The prevalence increases with age and the major causes are central obesity, co-morbidity and overall poor health.

Testicular Cancer

Epidemiology, staging and diagnosis

1% of adult neoplasms and 5% of urological tumours. Its incidence has increased particularly in industrialised countries. Find out the epidemiology, staging and diagnosis here.

Paediatric Urology

Phimosis and undescended testes

Phimosis and undescended testes are two common conditions in paediatric patients. It is important to know their epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

Epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and prognosis

Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma accounts for 5–10% of urothelial carcinomas, but is invasive in two out of three patients at diagnosis. In this sheet you can find the epidemiology, diagnosis and prognosis of this cancer.

Urological Trauma

Overview and renal trauma

Renal trauma occurs in up to 5% of all trauma cases and can be mostly managed non-operatively. Find out the management algorithm here.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Epidemiology, histology and staging

Renal Cell Carcinoma is the most common solid lesion within the kidney, accounting for approximately 90% of all kidney malignancies. In this sheet you can find the epidemiology, histology and staging of this cancer.

Urological Infections

Classification, Asymptomatic bacteriuria, and uncomplicated cystitis

Urinary growth of bacteria in an asymptomatic individual is common and corresponds to a commensal colonisation. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are classified as Uncomplicated, Complicated, Recurrent, Catheter-associated, and Urosepsis. Find out more on their classification, the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and uncomplicated cystitis.