Male Hypogonadism

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G.R. Dohle (Chair), S. Arver, C. Bettocchi, T.H. Jones, S. Kliesch, M. Punab



Androgens play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male reproductive and sexual functions, body composition, bone health, and behaviour. Low levels of circulating androgens in utero can cause disturbances in male sexual development, resulting in congenital abnormalities of the male reproductive tract. Later in life, this may cause reduced fertility, sexual dysfunction, decreased muscle formation and bone mineralisation, disturbances of fat metabolism, and cognitive dysfunction. Testosterone levels decrease slightly as a process of ageing: signs and symptoms caused by this decline can be considered a normal part of ageing. However, low testosterone levels are also associated with obesity and several chronic diseases, and some symptomatic patients may benefit from testosterone treatment. This document presents the European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of male hypogonadism, with the aim to provide practical recommendations on how to deal with primary hypogonadism and ageing-related decline in testosterone in male patients, as well as the treatment of testosterone deficiencies.

It must be emphasised that clinical guidelines present the best evidence available to the experts. However following guideline recommendations will not necessarily result in the best outcome. Guidelines can never replace clinical expertise when making treatment decisions for individual patients, but rather help to focus decisions - also taking personal values and preferences/individual circumstances of patients into account.

1.2.Publication history

The present Male Hypogonadism Guidelines are a revision of the first edition of the EAU Guidelines on Male Hypogonadism published in 2012.

1.3.Available Publications

A quick reference document (pocket guidelines) is available, both in print and in a number of versions for mobile devices, presenting the main findings of the Male Hypogonadism Guidelines. These are abridged versions which may require consultation together with the full text versions. All available material can be viewed and downloaded for personal use at the EAU website. The EAU website also includes a selection of EAU guidelines articles as well as translations produced by national urological associations:

1.4.Panel composition

The EAU Male Hypogonadism Panel consists of a multidisciplinary group of experts, including urologists specialising in andrology and endocrinologists and clinical andrologists.