Bladder Stones

Full Text Guidelines Summary of Changes Scientific Publications & Appendices Pocket Guidelines Archive Panel

ISBN 978-94-92671-13-4

C. Türk (Chair), J.F. Donaldson, A. Neisius, A. Petřík, C. Seitz, A. Skolarikos (Vice-chair), B. Somani, K. Thomas, G. Gambaro (Consultant nephrologist)
Guidelines Associates: N. Davis, R. Lombardo, L. Tzelves


1.1.Aims and Scope

The European Association of Urology (EAU) Bladder Stones Guidelines Panel, a sub-panel of the EAU Urolithiasis Guidelines Panel, has prepared these guidelines to help urologists assess evidence-based management of calculi in native urinary bladders and urinary tract reconstructions and to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice. The management of upper urinary tract stones is addressed in a separate document: the EAU Guidelines on Urolithiasis.

It must be emphasised that clinical guidelines present the best evidence available to the experts but following guideline recommendations will not necessarily result in the best outcome. Guidelines can never replace clinical expertise when making treatment decisions for individual patients, but rather help to focus decisions - also taking personal values and preferences/individual circumstances of patients into account. Guidelines are not mandates and do not purport to be a legal standard of care.

1.2.Panel Composition

The EAU Bladder Stones Guidelines Panel consists of an international group of clinicians with particular expertise in this area. All experts involved in the production of this document have submitted potential conflict of interest statements which can be viewed on the EAU website Uroweb:

1.3.Available Publications

A quick reference document (Pocket Guidelines) is available, both in print and as an app for iOS and Android devices. These are abridged versions, which may require consultation together with the full text versions. The EAU Urolithiasis Panel has also published a number of scientific publications in the EAU journal European Urology [1-3]. All documents can be accessed through the EAU website:

1.4.Publication History and Summary of Changes

1.4.1.Publication History

The EAU Bladder stones Guidelines were first published in 2019. This 2021 document presents a full update of the 2020 text.

1.4.2.Summary of Changes

The literature throughout the entire document has been reassessed and updated (see Methods section below).

For 2021 the content of each chapter has been rephrased and re-assessed; in particular the discussion of metabolic factors in section 3.1, Prevalence, aetiology and risk factors has seen significant revision. The summary of evidence and recommendations tables have been completely revised and updated.