For the 2022 Neuro-Urology Guidelines, new and relevant evidence has been identified, collated and appraised through a structured assessment of the literature. A broad and comprehensive literature search, covering all sections of the Neuro-Urology Guidelines was performed. The scope search identified 1743 unique references of which 208 full texts were reviewed resulting in 53 additional references and text updates being incorporated throughout the 2022 version of the Neuro-Urology Guidelines. Specific changes include:

  • Section Available Questionnaires:  A new patient reported outcome questionnaire has been added both in the text as well as in Table 5.  
  • Section 3.3, Table 6 has been expanded to include general genital urological assessment items. 
  • Additional systematic review data was included in Section regarding urethral slings and artificial urinary sphincter, resulting in two new recommendations for section



Strength rating

Place a synthetic urethral sling in female patients with neurogenic stress urinary incontinence who are able to self-catheterise.


Insert an artificial urinary sphincter in selected female patients with neurogenic stress urinary incontinence; however, patients should be referred to experienced centres for the procedure and informed of the possible need for re-intervention.