Summary of changes

The literature for the entire document has been checked and, wherever relevant, updated (see Methods section 2.1). For 2021, conclusions and recommendations have been rephrased and strength ratings reassessed across several sections. References and supporting text have also been refreshed. Additional information has been added to the chapter on “Prevalence, aetiology, risk of recurrence” including “Table 3.4 Risk factors for chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease in stone formers” and “Table 3.5 Risk factors for chronic kidney disease and renal stones”. A consultant nephrologist has now been added to the panel and has reviewed the entire text. Updated recommendation strength ratings include the following: Guidelines for laboratory examinations and stone analysis

RecommendationsStrength rating

Serum blood sample:

• creatinine;

• uric acid;

• (ionised) calcium;

• sodium;

• potassium;

• blood cell count;

• C-reactive protein.

Strong Guidelines for the management of tubular acidosis

RecommendationsStrength rating
Prescribe alkaline citrates for distal renal tubular acidosis.Strong