Penile Cancer


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58.Tang, V., et al. Should centralized histopathological review in penile cancer be the global standard? BJU Int, 2014. 114: 340.

59.Vanthoor, J., et al. Making surgery safer by centralization of care: impact of case load in penile cancer. World J Urol, 2020. 38: 1385.

60.Aumayr, K., et al. P16INK4A immunohistochemistry for detection of human papilloma virus-associated penile squamous cell carcinoma is superior to in-situ hybridization. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol, 2013. 26: 611.

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62.Mannweiler, S., et al. Two major pathways of penile carcinogenesis: HPV-induced penile cancers overexpress p16ink4a, HPV-negative cancers associated with dermatoses express p53, but lack p16ink4a overexpression. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2013. 69: 73.

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64.Guimarães, G.C., et al. Front pattern of invasion in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: new prognostic factor for predicting risk of lymph node metastases. Urology, 2006. 68: 148.

65.Sanchez, D.F., et al. What Is New in the Pathologic Staging of Penile Carcinoma in the 8th Edition of AJCC TNM Model: Rationale for Changes With Practical Stage-by-stage Category Diagnostic Considerations. Adv Anat Pathol, 2021. 28: 209.

66.Sali, A.P., et al. Histopathological risk scoring system as a tool for predicting lymph nodal metastasis in penile squamous cell carcinoma. Pathology, 2019. 51: 696.

67.Winters, B.R., et al. Predictors of Nodal Upstaging in Clinical Node Negative Patients With Penile Carcinoma: A National Cancer Database Analysis. Urology, 2016. 96: 29.

68.Feng, M.A., et al. Concordance of lymphovascular invasion diagnosed in penile carcinoma with and without the immunohistochemical markers ERG and CD31. Histol Histopathol, 2016. 31: 293.

69.Dorofte, L., et al. Low level of interobserver concordance in assessing histological subtype and tumor grade in patients with penile cancer may impair patient care. Virchows Arch, 2022. 480: 879.

70.Cubilla, A.L. The role of pathologic prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. World J Urol, 2009. 27: 169.

71.Zekan, D.S., et al. Prognostic predictors of lymph node metastasis in penile cancer: a systematic review. Int Braz J Urol, 2021. 47: 943.

72.Fankhauser, C.D., et al. Lymphovascular and perineural invasion are risk factors for inguinal lymph node metastases in men with T1G2 penile cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2022. 148: 2231.

73.Brierley, J., et al., TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, 8th Edn. 2016.

74.Li, Z., et al. Corpora Cavernos invasion vs. Corpus Spongiosum invasion in Penile Cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer, 2021. 12: 1960.

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79.Chaux, A., et al. The prognostic index: a useful pathologic guide for prediction of nodal metastases and survival in penile squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol, 2009. 33: 1049.

80.Zito Marino, F., et al. Discrepancy of p16 immunohistochemical expression and HPV RNA in penile cancer. A multiplex in situ hybridization/immunohistochemistry approach study. Infect Agent Cancer, 2021. 16: 22.

81.Cubilla, A.L., et al. Value of p16(INK)⁴(a) in the pathology of invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas: A report of 202 cases. Am J Surg Pathol, 2011. 35: 253.

82.Canete-Portillo, S., et al. Report From the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consultation Conference on Molecular Pathology of Urogenital Cancers V: Recommendations on the Use of Immunohistochemical and Molecular Biomarkers in Penile Cancer. Am J Surg Pathol, 2020. 44: e80.

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84.Velazquez, E.F., et al. Histologic grade and perineural invasion are more important than tumor thickness as predictor of nodal metastasis in penile squamous cell carcinoma invading 5 to 10 mm. Am J Surg Pathol, 2008. 32: 974.

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86.Sun, M., et al. Development and external validation of a prognostic tool for prediction of cancer-specific mortality after complete loco-regional pathological staging for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. BJU Int, 2015. 116: 734.

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90.Bertolotto, M., et al. Primary and secondary malignancies of the penis: ultrasound features. Abdom Imaging, 2005. 30: 108.

91.Kayes, O., et al. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the local staging of penile cancer. Eur Urol, 2007. 51: 1313.

92.Hanchanale, V., et al. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the invasion of the tunica albuginea and the urethra during the primary staging of penile cancer. BJU Int, 2016. 117: 439.

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94.Bozzini, G., et al. Role of Penile Doppler US in the Preoperative Assessment of Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: Results From a Large Prospective Multicenter European Study. Urology, 2016. 90: 131.

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98.Kroon, B.K., et al. Patients with penile carcinoma benefit from immediate resection of clinically occult lymph node metastases. J Urol, 2005. 173: 816.

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100.Woldu, S.L., et al. Usage and survival implications of surgical staging of inguinal lymph nodes in intermediate- to high-risk, clinical localized penile cancer: A propensity-score matched analysis. Urol Oncol, 2018. 36: 159.e7.

101.Mueller-Lisse, U.G., et al. Functional imaging in penile cancer: PET/computed tomography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Curr Opin Urol, 2008. 18: 105.

102.Leijte, J.A., et al. Prospective evaluation of hybrid 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging clinically node-negative patients with penile carcinoma. BJU Int, 2009. 104: 640.

103.Schlenker, B., et al. Detection of inguinal lymph node involvement in penile squamous cell carcinoma by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT: a prospective single-center study. Urol Oncol, 2012. 30: 55.

104.Jakobsen, J.K., et al. DaPeCa-7: comparative assessment of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) and conventional diagnostic CT in diagnosis of lymph node metastases, distant metastases and incidental findings in patients with invasive penile cancer. BJU Int, 2021. 127: 254.

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108.Lee, E.W.C., et al. High diagnostic accuracy of inguinal ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration followed by dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy in men with impalpable and palpable inguinal lymph nodes. BJU Int, 2022. 130: 331.

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110.Catalona, W.J. Modified inguinal lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the penis with preservation of saphenous veins: technique and preliminary results. J Urol, 1988. 140: 306.

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112.d’Ancona, C.A., et al. Long-term followup of penile carcinoma treated with penectomy and bilateral modified inguinal lymphadenectomy. J Urol, 2004. 172: 498.

113.Thyavihally, Y.B., et al. Comparative study of perioperative and survival outcomes after video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL) and open inguinal lymph node dissection (O-ILND) in the management of inguinal lymph nodes in carcinoma of the penis. J Robot Surg, 2021. 15: 905.

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115.Gopman, J.M., et al. Predicting postoperative complications of inguinal lymph node dissection for penile cancer in an international multicentre cohort. BJU Int, 2015. 116: 196.

116.Gómez-Ferrer, A., et al. A single-center comparison of our initial experiences in treating penile and urethral cancer with video-endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL) and later experiences in melanoma cases. Front Surg, 2022. 9: 870857.

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118.Horenblas, S., et al. Detection of occult metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis using a dynamic sentinel node procedure. J Urol, 2000. 163: 100. Vries, H.M., et al. Clinicopathological predictors of finding additional inguinal lymph node metastases in penile cancer patients after positive dynamic sentinel node biopsy: a European multicentre evaluation. BJU Int, 2022. 130: 126.

120.Dell’Oglio, P., et al. Hybrid Indocyanine Green-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid for Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography and Combined Radio- and Fluorescence-guided Sentinel Node Biopsy in Penile Cancer: Results of 740 Inguinal Basins Assessed at a Single Institution. Eur Urol, 2020. 78: 865.

121.Leijte, J.A., et al. Reliability and safety of current dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile carcinoma. Eur Urol, 2007. 52: 170.

122.Zou, Z.J., et al. Radiocolloid-based dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy in penile cancer with clinically negative inguinal lymph node: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol, 2016. 48: 2001.

123.Hughes, B., et al. Non-invasive and minimally invasive staging of regional lymph nodes in penile cancer. World J Urol, 2009. 27: 197.

124.Hövels, A.M., et al. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol, 2008. 63: 387.

125.Antoch, G., et al. Accuracy of whole-body dual-modality fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for tumor staging in solid tumors: comparison with CT and PET. J Clin Oncol, 2004. 22: 4357.

126.Graafland, N.M., et al. Scanning with 18F-FDG-PET/CT for detection of pelvic nodal involvement in inguinal node-positive penile carcinoma. Eur Urol, 2009. 56: 339.

127.Ashley, S., et al. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) status may impact treatment outcomes in patients with pre-cancerous penile lesions (an eUROGEN Study). Int J Impot Res, 2021. 33: 620.

128.Hoekstra, R.J., et al. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia: Nomenclature, incidence and progression to malignancy in the Netherlands. Int J Urol, 2019. 26: 353.

129.Kravvas, G., et al. The management of penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN): clinical and histological features and treatment of 345 patients and a review of the literature. J Dermatolog Treat, 2022.
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130.Kristiansen, S., et al. Incidence of penile intraepithelial neoplasia and treatment strategies in Sweden 2000-2019. BJU Int, 2022. 129: 752.

131.Alnajjar, H.M., et al. Treatment of carcinoma in situ of the glans penis with topical chemotherapy agents. Eur Urol, 2012. 62: 923.

132.Issa, A., et al. Treatment Options and Outcomes for Men with Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia:
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133.Kim, J.Y.S., et al. Guidelines of care for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
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134.Leone, A., et al. Need for Evidence and Consensus on Laser Treatment for Management of Select Primary Penile Tumors. Eur Urol, 2017. 72: 4.

135.Shaw, K.S., et al. Combination of imiquimod with cryotherapy in the treatment of penile intraepithelial neoplasia. JAAD Case Rep, 2017. 3: 546.

136.Paoli, J., et al. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia: results of photodynamic therapy. Acta Derm Venereol, 2006. 86: 418.

137.Schlenker, B., et al. Organ-preserving neodymium-yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser therapy for penile carcinoma: a long-term follow-up. BJU Int, 2010. 106: 786.

138.Meijer, R.P., et al. Long-term follow-up after laser therapy for penile carcinoma. Urology, 2007.
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139.Shabbir, M., et al. Glans resurfacing for the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the penis: surgical technique and outcomes. Eur Urol, 2011. 59: 142.

140.Caldamone, A.A., et al. Buccal mucosal grafts for urethral reconstruction. Urology, 1998. 51: 15.

141.Håkansson, U., et al. Organ-sparing reconstructive surgery in penile cancer: initial experiences at two Swedish referral centres. Scand J Urol, 2015. 49: 149.

142.Pang, K.H., et al. Advances in penile-sparing surgical approaches. Asian J Urol, 2022. 9: 359.

143.Cakir, O.O., et al. Surgical technique and outcomes following coronal-sparing glans resurfacing for benign and malignant penile lesions. Int J Impot Res, 2022. 34: 495.

144.Corbishley, C.M., et al. Glans resurfacing for precancerous and superficially invasive carcinomas of the glans penis: Pathological specimen handling and reporting. Semin Diagn Pathol, 2015. 32: 232.

145.Roussel, E., et al. Predictors of local recurrence and its impact on survival after glansectomy for penile cancer: time to challenge the dogma? BJU Int, 2021. 127: 606.

146.Djajadiningrat, R.S., et al. Penile sparing surgery for penile cancer-does it affect survival? J Urol, 2014. 192: 120.

147.Leijte, J.A., et al. Recurrence patterns of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: recommendations for follow-up based on a two-centre analysis of 700 patients. Eur Urol, 2008. 54: 161.

148.Agrawal, A., et al. The histological extent of the local spread of carcinoma of the penis and its therapeutic implications. BJU Int, 2000. 85: 299.

149.Minhas, S., et al. What surgical resection margins are required to achieve oncological control in men with primary penile cancer? BJU Int, 2005. 96: 1040.

150.Philippou, P., et al. Conservative surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: resection margins and long-term oncological control. J Urol, 2012. 188: 803.

151.Sri, D., et al. A study into the association between local recurrence rates and surgical resection margins in organ-sparing surgery for penile squamous cell cancer. BJU Int, 2018. 122: 576.

152.Ellul, T., et al. Frozen section analysis for organ-conserving surgery in penile cancer: Assessing oncological outcomes and trends of local recurrence. J Clin Urol, 2020. 13: 419.

153.Kamel, M.H., et al. Organ Sparing Surgery for Penile Cancer: A Systematic Review. J Urol, 2017. 198: 770.

154.Tang, D.H., et al. Laser ablation as monotherapy for penile squamous cell carcinoma: A multi-center cohort analysis. Urol Oncol, 2018. 36: 147.

155.Musi, G., et al. Thulium-yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Tm:YAG) laser treatment of penile cancer: oncological results, functional outcomes, and quality of life. World J Urol, 2018. 36: 265.

156.Falcone, M., et al. Total Glans Resurfacing for the Management of Superficial Penile Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis in a Tertiary Referral Center. Urology, 2020. 145: 281.

157.Pérez, J., et al. Oncological and Functional Outcomes After Organ-Sparing Plastic Reconstructive Surgery for Penile Cancer. Urology, 2020. 142: 161.

158.O’Kelly, F., et al. A Prospective Study of Total Glans Resurfacing for Localized Penile Cancer to Maximize Oncologic and Functional Outcomes in a Tertiary Referral Network. J Urol, 2017. 197: 1258.

159.Pang, K.H., et al. Glansectomy and Reconstruction for Penile Cancer: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol Focus, 2021.

160.Crook, J., et al. Penile brachytherapy: technical aspects and postimplant issues. Brachytherapy, 2010. 9: 151. Crevoisier, R., et al. Long-term results of brachytherapy for carcinoma of the penis confined to the glans (N- or NX). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2009. 74: 1150.

162.Delaunay, B., et al. Brachytherapy for penile cancer: efficacy and impact on sexual function. Brachytherapy, 2014. 13: 380.

163.Kamsu-Kom, L., et al. Clinical Experience with Pulse Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Conservative Treatment of Penile Carcinoma and Comparison with Historical Data of Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 2015. 27: 387.

164.Sharma, D.N., et al. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for T1-T2-stage penile carcinoma: short-term results. Brachytherapy, 2014. 13: 481.

165.Pohanková, D., et al. High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Early Stages of Penile Carcinoma. Klin Onkol, 2019. 32: 52.

166.Martz, N., et al. High-dose rate brachytherapy in localized penile cancer: 5-Year clinical outcome analysis. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol, 2021. 27: 89.

167.Kellas-Ślęczka, S., et al. Nineteen-year single-center experience in 76 patients with penile cancer treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, 2019. 18: 493.

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