Paediatric Urology


2.1. Introduction

These Guidelines were compiled based on current literature following a structured review. Databases covered by the searches included Pubmed, Ovid, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Application of a structured analysis of the literature was not possible in many conditions due to a lack of well-designed studies. The limited availability of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs) - influenced also by the fact that a considerable number of treatment options relate to surgical interventions on a large spectrum of different congenital problems - means this document is largely a consensus document. Clearly there is a need for continuous re-evaluation of the information presented in this document.

Recommendation within the Guidelines are developed by the panels to prioritise clinically important care decisions. The strength of each recommendation is determined by the balance between desirable and undesirable consequences of alternative management strategies, the quality of the evidence (including certainty of estimates), and the nature and variability of patient values and preferences. This decision process, which can be reviewed in the strength rating forms which accompany each guideline statement, addresses a number of key elements:

  1. the overall quality of the evidence which exists for the recommendation [9];
  2. the magnitude of the effect (individual or combined effects);
  3. the certainty of the results (precision, consistency, heterogeneity and other statistical or study related factors);
  4. the balance between desirable and undesirable outcomes;
  5. the impact and certainty of patient values and preferences on the intervention

Strong recommendations typically indicate a high degree of evidence quality and / or a favourable balance of benefit to harm and patient preference. Weak recommendations typically indicate availability of lower quality evidence, and/or equivocal balance between benefit and harm, and uncertainty or variability of patient preference [10].

Additional information can be found in the general Methodology section online at the EAU website;

A list of Associations endorsing the EAU Guidelines can also be viewed online at the above address.

2.2. Peer review

All chapters of the Paediatric Urology Guidelines were peer-reviewed in 2015.