Paediatric Urology


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49.DeVries, C.R., et al. Reduction of paraphimosis with hyaluronidase. Urology, 1996. 48: 464.

50.Weiss, H.A., et al. Complications of circumcision in male neonates, infants and children: a systematic review. BMC Urol, 2010. 10: 2.

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54.Sijstermans, K., et al. The frequency of undescended testis from birth to adulthood: a review. Int J Androl, 2008. 31: 1.

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56.Kaefer, M., et al. The incidence of intersexuality in children with cryptorchidism and hypospadias: stratification based on gonadal palpability and meatal position. J Urol, 1999. 162: 1003.

57.Kollin, C., et al. Cryptorchidism: a clinical perspective. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev, 2014. 11 Suppl 2: 240.

58.Caesar, R.E., et al. The incidence of the cremasteric reflex in normal boys. J Urol, 1994. 152: 779.

59.Barthold, J.S., et al. The epidemiology of congenital cryptorchidism, testicular ascent and orchiopexy. J Urol, 2003. 170: 2396.

60.Turek, P.J., et al. The absent cryptorchid testis: surgical findings and their implications for diagnosis and etiology. J Urol, 1994. 151: 718.

61.Rabinowitz, R., et al. Late presentation of cryptorchidism: the etiology of testicular re-ascent. J Urol, 1997. 157: 1892.

62.Cendron, M., et al. Anatomical, morphological and volumetric analysis: a review of 759 cases of testicular maldescent. J Urol, 1993. 149: 570.

63.Braga, L.H., et al. Is there an optimal contralateral testicular cut-off size that predicts monorchism in boys with nonpalpable testicles? J Pediatr Urol, 2014. 10: 693.

64.Hurwitz, R.S., et al. How well does contralateral testis hypertrophy predict the absence of the nonpalpable testis? J Urol, 2001. 165: 588.

65.Hodhod, A., et al. Testicular hypertrophy as a predictor for contralateral monorchism: Retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. J Pediatr Urol, 2016. 12: 34 e1.

66.Elert, A., et al. Population-based investigation of familial undescended testis and its association with other urogenital anomalies. J Pediatr Urol, 2005. 1: 403.

67.Hrebinko, R.L., et al. The limited role of imaging techniques in managing children with undescended testes. J Urol, 1993. 150: 458.

68.Tasian, G.E., et al. Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 2011. 127: 119.

69.Elder, J.S. Ultrasonography is unnecessary in evaluating boys with a nonpalpable testis. Pediatrics, 2002. 110: 748.

70.Wenzler, D.L., et al. What is the rate of spontaneous testicular descent in infants with cryptorchidism? J Urol, 2004. 171: 849.

71.Park, K.H., et al. Histological evidences suggest recommending orchiopexy within the first year of life for children with unilateral inguinal cryptorchid testis. Int J Urol, 2007. 14: 616.

72.Engeler, D.S., et al. Early orchiopexy: prepubertal intratubular germ cell neoplasia and fertility outcome. Urology, 2000. 56: 144.

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74.Rajfer, J., et al. Hormonal therapy of cryptorchidism. A randomized, double-blind study comparing human chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. N Engl J Med, 1986. 314: 466.

75.Pyorala, S., et al. A review and meta-analysis of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1995. 80: 2795.

76.Rajfer, J., et al. The incidence of intersexuality in patients with hypospadias and cryptorchidism. J Urol, 1976. 116: 769.

77.Lala, R., et al. Combined therapy with LHRH and HCG in cryptorchid infants. Eur J Pediatr, 1993. 152 Suppl 2: S31.

78.Forest, M.G., et al. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, androgens, adrenocorticotropin hormone, dexamethasone and hyperprolactinemia on plasma sex steroid-binding protein. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1988. 538: 214.

79.Aycan, Z., et al. Evaluation of low-dose hCG treatment for cryptorchidism. Turk J Pediatr, 2006. 48: 228.

80.Hesse, V., et al. Three injections of human chorionic gonadotropin are as effective as ten injections in the treatment of cryptorchidism. Horm Res, 1988. 30: 193.

81.Hagberg, S., et al. Treatment of undescended testes with intranasal application of synthetic LH-RH. Eur J Pediatr, 1982. 139: 285.

82.Hadziselimovic, F., et al. Treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue after successful orchiopexy markedly improves the chance of fertility later in life. J Urol, 1997. 158: 1193.

83.Kollin, C., et al. Surgical treatment of unilaterally undescended testes: testicular growth after randomization to orchiopexy at age 9 months or 3 years. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1589.

84.Cortes, D., et al. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism. J Urol, 2000. 163: 1290.

85.Ritzen, E.M. Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol, 2008. 159 Suppl 1: S87.

86.Hildorf, S., et al. Fertility Potential is Compromised in 20% to 25% of Boys with Nonsyndromic Cryptorchidism despite Orchiopexy within the First Year of Life. J Urol, 2020. 203: 832.

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88.Docimo, S.G. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol, 1995. 154: 1148.

89.Ziylan, O., et al. Failed orchiopexy. Urol Int, 2004. 73: 313.

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91.Kozminski, D.J., et al. Orchiopexy without Transparenchymal Fixation Suturing: A 29-Year Experience. J Urol, 2015. 194: 1743.

92.Martin, J.M., et al. Is radiotherapy a good adjuvant strategy for men with a history of cryptorchism and stage I seminoma? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2010. 76: 65.

93.Na, S.W., et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy for children with palpable low-lying undescended testis: early outcome of a prospective randomized controlled study. Korean J Urol, 2011. 52: 637.

94.Parsons, J.K., et al. The low scrotal approach to the ectopic or ascended testicle: prevalence of a patent processus vaginalis. J Urol, 2003. 169: 1832.

95.Feng, S., et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy versus the inguinal approach in children with palpable undescended testis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Surg Int, 2016. 32: 989.

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100.Snodgrass, W.T., et al. Scrotal exploration for unilateral nonpalpable testis. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1718.

101.Cisek, L.J., et al. Current findings in diagnostic laparoscopic evaluation of the nonpalpable testis. J Urol, 1998. 160: 1145.

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107.Esposito, C., et al. Exploration of inguinal canal is mandatory in cases of non palpable testis if laparoscopy shows elements entering a closed inguinal ring. Eur J Pediatr Surg, 2010. 20: 138.

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135.Rushton, H.G., et al. Testicular sparing surgery for prepubertal teratoma of the testis: a clinical and pathological study. J Urol, 1990. 144: 726.

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137.Ahmed, H.U., et al. Testicular and paratesticular tumours in the prepubertal population. Lancet Oncol, 2010. 11: 476.

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139.Soles, B.S., et al. Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2018. 142: 1358.

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143.Akbar, S.A., et al. Multimodality imaging of paratesticular neoplasms and their rare mimics. Radiographics, 2003. 23: 1461.

144.Esen, B., et al. Should we rely on Doppler ultrasound for evaluation of testicular solid lesions? World J Urol, 2018. 36: 1263.

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152.Radford, A., et al. Testicular-sparing surgery in the pediatric population: multicenter review of practice with review of the literature. Curr Opin Urol, 2019. 29: 481.

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155.Fankhauser, C.D., et al. Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes of 1,375 Patients with Testicular Leydig Cell Tumors: Analysis of Published Case Series Data. J Urol, 2020. 203: 949.

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157.Albers, P., et al. Guidelines on Testicular Cancer: 2015 Update. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 1054.

158.Little, T., et al. Paediatric testicular tumours in a New Zealand centre. N Z Med J, 2017. 130: 68.

159.Williamson, S.R., et al. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular germ cell tumours: a review and update from the International Society of Urological Pathology Testis Consultation Panel. Histopathology, 2017. 70: 335.

160.Hasegawa, T., et al. A case of immature teratoma originating in intra-abdominal undescended testis in a 3-month-old infant. Pediatr Surg Int, 2006. 22: 570.

161.Chang, M.Y., et al. Prepubertal Testicular Teratomas and Epidermoid Cysts: Comparison of Clinical and Sonographic Features. J Ultrasound Med, 2015. 34: 1745.

162.Kao, C.S., et al. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases with emphasis on its wide morphologic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol, 2015. 39: 1159.

163.Shukla, A.R., et al. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis:: contemporary clinical management and pathological diagnosis. J Urol, 2004. 171: 1900.

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171.Alleemudder, A., et al. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain. Urol Ann, 2016. 8: 360.

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176.Rogers, P.C., et al. Treatment of children and adolescents with stage II testicular and stages I and II ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: A Pediatric Intergroup Study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9048 and Children’s Cancer Group 8891. J Clin Oncol, 2004. 22: 3563.

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178.Alanee, S.R., et al. Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Patients Treated for Testis Cancer: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Experience. Urology, 2016. 95: 128.

179.Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L., et al. Increased prevalence of testicular adrenal rest tumours during adolescence in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Horm Res Paediatr, 2014. 82: 238.

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