Guidelines

Sexual and Reproductive Health

12. REFERENCES

1.Guyatt, G.H., et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ, 2008. 336: 924.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18436948/

2.Guyatt, G.H., et al. What is “quality of evidence” and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ, 2008. 336: 995.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18456631/

3.Phillips B, et al. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. 1998.

https://www.cebm.net/2009/06/oxford-centre-evidence-based-medicine-levels-evidence-march-2009/

4.Guyatt, G.H., et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. BMJ, 2008. 336: 1049.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18467413/

5.Salonia, A., et al. Paediatric and adult-onset male hypogonadism. Nat Rev Dis Primers, 2019. 5: 38.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31147553/

6.Nieschlag, E., et al., Andrology: male reproductive health and dysfunction. 3rd edn. 2010, Heidelberg.

https://www.academia.edu/30959932/Andrology_Male_Reproductive_Health_and_Dysfunction_3rd_ed

7.Khera, M., et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1787.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27914560/

8.Wu, F.C., et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93: 2737.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18270261/

9.Araujo, A.B., et al. Clinical review: Endogenous testosterone and mortality in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011. 96: 3007.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21816776/

10.Wu, F.C., et al. Identification of late-onset hypogonadism in middle-aged and elderly men. N Engl
J Med, 2010. 363: 123.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20554979/

11.Zarotsky, V., et al. Systematic literature review of the risk factors, comorbidities, and consequences of hypogonadism in men. Andrology, 2014. 2: 819.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25269643/

12.Haring, R., et al. Low serum testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of mortality in a population-based cohort of men aged 20-79. Eur Heart J, 2010. 31: 1494.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20164245/

13.Ding, E.L., et al. Sex differences of endogenous sex hormones and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 2006. 295: 1288.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16537739/

14.Kapoor, D., et al. Clinical and biochemical assessment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes: correlations with bioavailable testosterone and visceral adiposity. Diabetes Care, 2007. 30: 911.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17392552/

15.Bonomi, M., et al. Klinefelter syndrome (KS): genetics, clinical phenotype and hypogonadism.
J Endocrinol Invest, 2017. 40: 123.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27644703/

16.Kanakis, G.A., et al. Klinefelter syndrome: more than hypogonadism. Metabolism, 2018. 86: 135.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29382506/

17.Aksglaede, L., et al. 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome: clinical characteristics and age-specific recommendations for medical management. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 2013. 163c: 55.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23345262/

18.Bojesen, A., et al. Prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Klinefelter syndrome: a national registry study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2003. 88: 622.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12574191/

19.Kelly, D.M., et al. Testosterone and obesity. Obes Rev, 2015. 16: 581.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25982085/

20.Corona, G., et al. Endocrinologic Control of Men’s Sexual Desire and Arousal/Erection. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 317.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26944463/

21.Saad, F., et al. Differential effects of 11 years of long-term injectable testosterone undecanoate therapy on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in hypogonadal men with normal weight, overweight and obesity in comparison with untreated controls: real-world data from a controlled registry study. Int J Obes (Lond), 2020. 44: 1264.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32060355/

22.Muller, M., et al. Endogenous sex hormones and metabolic syndrome in aging men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005. 90: 2618.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15687322/

23.Dhindsa, S., et al. Frequent occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004. 89: 5462.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15531498/

24.Jones, T.H., et al. Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (the TIMES2 study). Diabetes Care, 2011. 34: 828.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21386088/

25.Kalinchenko, S.Y., et al. Effects of testosterone supplementation on markers of the metabolic syndrome and inflammation in hypogonadal men with the metabolic syndrome: the double-blinded placebo-controlled Moscow study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2010. 73: 602.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20718771/

26.Groti, K., et al. The impact of testosterone replacement therapy on glycemic control, vascular function, and components of the metabolic syndrome in obese hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Aging Male, 2018. 21: 158.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29708829/

27.Hackett, G., et al. Testosterone replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes but not in men with coexisting depression: the BLAST study. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 840.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24308723/

28.Yassin, A., et al. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism Prevents Progression From Prediabetes to Type 2 Diabetes: Eight-Year Data From a Registry Study. Diabetes Care, 2019. 42: 1104.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30862651/

29.Kapoor, D., et al. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Eur
J Endocrinol, 2006. 154: 899.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16728551/

30.Wittert, G., et al. Testosterone treatment to prevent or revert type 2 diabetes in men enrolled in a lifestyle programme (T4DM): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-year, phase 3b trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2021. 9: 32.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33338415/

31.Hackett, G., et al. Long-term testosterone therapy in type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced mortality without improvement in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. BJU Int, 2019. 123: 519.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30216622/

32.Muraleedharan, V., et al. Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risk of mortality and testosterone replacement improves survival in men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol, 2013. 169: 725.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23999642/

33.Hackett, G., et al. Testosterone undecanoate improves sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes and severe hypogonadism: results from a 30-week randomized placebo-controlled study. BJU Int, 2016. 118: 804.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27124889/

34.Haider, K.S., et al. Remission of type 2 diabetes following long-term treatment with injectable testosterone undecanoate in patients with hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes: 11-year data from a real-world registry study. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32558149/

35.Miller, W.L., et al. The molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology of human steroidogenesis and its disorders. Endocr Rev, 2011. 32: 81.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21051590/

36.Santi, D., et al., Primary and Secondary Hypogonadism, In: Endocrinology of the Testis and Male Reproduction, M. Simoni & I.T. Huhtaniemi, Editors. 2017, Springer International Publishing: Cham.

37.Morelli, A., et al. Which patients with sexual dysfunction are suitable for testosterone replacement therapy? J Endocrinol Invest, 2007. 30: 880.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18075293/

38.Oesterling, J.E., et al. The inability of adrenal androgens to stimulate the adult human prostate: an autopsy evaluation of men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and panhypopituitarism. J Urol, 1986. 136: 1030.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2945933/

39.Young, J., et al. Panhypopituitarism as a model to study the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1997. 82: 2578.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9253337/

40.Rochira, V., et al. Aromatase deficiency in men: a clinical perspective. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2009.
5: 559.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19707181/

41.Rosner, W., et al. Toward excellence in testosterone testing: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95: 4542.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20926540/

42.Stanworth, R.D., et al. Statin therapy is associated with lower total but not bioavailable or free testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2009. 32: 541.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19114614/

43.Skowron, K.J., et al. Steroid receptor/coactivator binding inhibitors: An update. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2019. 493: 110471.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31163202/

44.Francomano, D., et al. CAG repeat testing of androgen receptor polymorphism: is this necessary for the best clinical management of hypogonadism? J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 2373.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23844628/

45.Zitzmann, M. Pharmacogenetics of testosterone replacement therapy. Pharmacogenomics, 2009. 10: 1341.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19663677/

46.Stanworth, R.D., et al. The role of androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and other factors which affect the clinical response to testosterone replacement in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: TIMES2 sub-study. Eur J Endocrinol, 2014. 170: 193.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24165020/

47.She, Z.Y., et al. Sry and SoxE genes: How they participate in mammalian sex determination and gonadal development? Semin Cell Dev Biol, 2017. 63: 13.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27481580/

48.Birnbaum, W., et al. Sex hormone replacement in disorders of sex development. Endocr Dev, 2014. 27: 149.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25247652/

49.Richmond, E.J., et al. Male pubertal development and the role of androgen therapy. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 3: 338.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17377616/

50.Rochira, V., et al. The endocrine role of estrogens on human male skeleton. Int J Endocrinol, 2015. 2015: 165215.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25873947/

51.Rastrelli, G., et al. How to define hypogonadism? Results from a population of men consulting for sexual dysfunction. J Endocrinol Invest, 2016. 39: 473.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26733213/

52.Tobiansky, D.J., et al. Androgen Regulation of the Mesocorticolimbic System and Executive Function. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2018. 9: 279.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29922228/

53.Isidori, A.M., et al. A critical analysis of the role of testosterone in erectile function: from pathophysiology to treatment-a systematic review. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24050791/

54.Vignozzi, L., et al. Estrogen mediates metabolic syndrome-induced erectile dysfunction: a study in the rabbit. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 2890.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25243860/

55.Corona, G., et al. The hormonal control of ejaculation. Nat Rev Urol, 2012. 9: 508.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22869001/

56.Giannetta, E., et al. Subclinical male hypogonadism. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012. 26: 539.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22863395/

57.Tajar, A., et al. Characteristics of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in aging men: evidence from the European Male Ageing Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95: 1810.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20173018/

58.Corona, G., et al. Subclinical male hypogonadism. Minerva Endocrinol, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32969626/

59.Grossmann, M., et al. A Perspective on Middle-Aged and Older Men With Functional Hypogonadism: Focus on Holistic Management. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2017. 102: 1067.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28359097/

60.Corona, G., et al. Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2021. 22: 275.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33616801/

61.Salonia, A., et al. SARS-CoV-2, testosterone and frailty in males (PROTEGGIMI): A multidimensional research project. Andrology, 2021. 9: 19.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32369678/

62.Pivonello, R., et al. Sex Disparities in COVID-19 Severity and Outcome: Are Men Weaker or Women Stronger? Neuroendocrinology, 2021. 111: 1066.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33242856/

63.Rastrelli, G., et al. Low testosterone levels predict clinical adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients. Andrology, 2021. 9: 88.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32436355/

64.Salciccia, S., et al. Interplay between male testosterone levels and the risk for subsequent invasive respiratory assistance among COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. Endocrine, 2020. 70: 206.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33030665/

65.Cinislioglu, A.E., et al. The relationship of serum testosterone levels with the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 disease in male patients: A prospective study. Andrology, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34288536/

66.Kadihasanoglu, M., et al. SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Affects Male Reproductive Hormone Levels: A Prospective, Cohort Study. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 256.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33468445/

67.Salonia, A., et al. Severely low testosterone in males with COVID-19: A case-control study. Andrology, 2021. 9: 1043.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33635589/

68.Dhindsa, S., et al. Association of Circulating Sex Hormones With Inflammation and Disease Severity in Patients With COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open, 2021. 4: e2111398.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34032853/

69.Lanser, L., et al. Testosterone Deficiency Is a Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2021. 12: 694083.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34226825/

70.Nie, X., et al. Multi-organ proteomic landscape of COVID-19 autopsies. Cell, 2021. 184: 775.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33503446/

71.Gianzo, M., et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor is expressed in human sperm cells and is involved in sperm motility. Fertil Steril, 2016. 105: 608.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26616438/

72.Aitken, R.J. COVID-19 and human spermatozoa-Potential risks for infertility and sexual transmission? Andrology, 2021. 9: 48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32649023/

73.Turner, H.E., et al. Gonadal function in men with chronic illness. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1997. 47: 379.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9404435/

74.Corona, G., et al. Is late-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism a specific age-dependent disease, or merely an epiphenomenon caused by accumulating disease-burden? Minerva Endocrinol, 2016. 41: 196.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26883937/

75.Corona, G., et al. Endogenous Testosterone Levels and Cardiovascular Risk: Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1260.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30145097/

76.Temiz, M.Z., et al. Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in semen samples and the effects of COVID-19 on male sexual health by using semen analysis and serum male hormone profile: A cross-sectional, pilot study. Andrologia, 2021. 53: e13912.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33244788/

77.Salonia, A., et al. Testosterone in males with COVID-19: A 7-month cohort study. Andrology, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34409772/

78.Mohr, B.A., et al. Normal, bound and nonbound testosterone levels in normally ageing men: results from the Massachusetts Male Ageing Study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2005. 62: 64.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15638872/

79.Guay, A., et al. Does early morning versus late morning draw time influence apparent testosterone concentration in men aged > or =45 years? Data from the Hypogonadism In Males study. Int J Impot Res, 2008. 20: 162.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17637790/

80.Travison, T.G., et al. Harmonized Reference Ranges for Circulating Testosterone Levels in Men of Four Cohort Studies in the United States and Europe. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2017. 102: 1161.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28324103/

81.Gagliano-Juca, T., et al. Oral glucose load and mixed meal feeding lowers testosterone levels in healthy eugonadal men. Endocrine, 2019. 63: 149.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30191441/

82.Huhtaniemi, I.T., et al. Comparison of serum testosterone and estradiol measurements in 3174 European men using platform immunoassay and mass spectrometry; relevance for the diagnostics in aging men. Eur J Endocrinol, 2012. 166: 983.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22423144/

83.Vermeulen, A., et al. A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1999. 84: 3666.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10523012/

84.Corona, G., et al. THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Testosterone supplementation and body composition: results from a meta-analysis study. Eur J Endocrinol, 2016. 174: R99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26537862/

85.Corona, G., et al. Meta-analysis of Results of Testosterone Therapy on Sexual Function Based on International Index of Erectile Function Scores. Eur Urol, 2017. 72: 1000.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28434676/

86.Boeri, L., et al. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 1549.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29198510/

87.Bhasin, S., et al. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2018. 103: 1715.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29562364/

88.Isidori, A.M., et al. Outcomes of androgen replacement therapy in adult male hypogonadism: recommendations from the Italian society of endocrinology. J Endocrinol Invest, 2015. 38: 103.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25384570/

89.Dalvi, M., et al. The prevalence of structural pituitary abnormalities by MRI scanning in men presenting with isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2016. 84: 858.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26733239/

90.Molitch, M.E. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas: A Review. JAMA, 2017. 317: 516.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28170483/

91.Çayan, S., et al. Effect of serum total testosterone and its relationship with other laboratory parameters on the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in SARS-CoV-2 infected male patients: a cohort study. Aging Male, 2020: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32883151/

92.Millar, A.C., et al. Predicting low testosterone in aging men: a systematic review. Cmaj, 2016.
188: E321.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27325129/

93.Rastrelli, G., et al. Testosterone and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Sex Med Rev, 2019. 7: 259.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30803920/

94.Corona, G., et al. Testosterone treatment and cardiovascular and venous thromboembolism risk: what is ‘new’? J Investig Med, 2017. 65: 964.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28495861/

95.Gagnon, D.R., et al. Hematocrit and the risk of cardiovascular disease--the Framingham study: a 34-year follow-up. Am Heart J, 1994. 127: 674.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8122618/

96.Colpi, G.M., et al. European Academy of Andrology guideline Management of oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia. Andrology, 2018. 6: 513.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30134082/

97.Corona, G., et al. The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2015. 16: 369.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25523084/

98.Mirone, V., et al. European Association of Urology Position Statement on the Role of the Urologist in the Management of Male Hypogonadism and Testosterone Therapy. Eur Urol, 2017. 72: 164.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28249799/

99.Nieschlag, E. Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH): a concept comes of age. Andrology, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31639279/

100.Huo, S., et al. Treatment of Men for “Low Testosterone”: A Systematic Review. PLoS One, 2016.
11: e0162480.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27655114/

101.Rastrelli, G., et al. Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Sexual Symptoms. Sex Med Rev, 2019.
7: 464.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30803919/

102.Elliott, J., et al. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 2017. 7: e015284.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29150464/

103.Rosen, R.C., et al. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology, 1997. 49: 822.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9187685/

104.Snyder, P.J., et al. Lessons From the Testosterone Trials. Endocr Rev, 2018. 39: 369.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29522088/

105.Cunningham, G.R., et al. Testosterone Treatment and Sexual Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2016. 101: 3096.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27355400/

106.Corona, G., et al. Testosterone supplementation and body composition: results from a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Endocrinol Invest, 2016. 39: 967.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27241317/

107.Traish, A.M. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 2014. 21: 313.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25105998/

108.Saad, F., et al. Effects of long-term treatment with testosterone on weight and waist size in 411 hypogonadal men with obesity classes I-III: observational data from two registry studies. Int J Obes (Lond), 2016. 40: 162.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26219417/

109.Rosen, R.C., et al. Quality of Life and Sexual Function Benefits of Long-Term Testosterone Treatment: Longitudinal Results From the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME). J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 1104.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28781213/

110.Smith, J.B., et al. Low Serum Testosterone in Outpatient Psychiatry Clinics: Addressing Challenges to the Screening and Treatment of Hypogonadism. Sex Med Rev, 2018. 6: 69.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29128270/

111.Walther, A., et al. Association of Testosterone Treatment With Alleviation of Depressive Symptoms in Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psych, 2019. 76: 31.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30427999/

112.Nian, Y., et al. Testosterone replacement therapy improves health-related quality of life for patients with late-onset hypogonadism: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Andrologia, 2017. 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27389320/

113.Rochira, V., et al. EAA clinical guideline on management of bone health in the andrological outpatient clinic. Andrology, 2018. 6: 272.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29499097/

114.Isidori, A.M., et al. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2005. 63: 280.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16117815/

115.Tracz, M.J., et al. Testosterone use in men and its effects on bone health. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006. 91: 2011.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16720668/

116.Ng Tang Fui, M., et al. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Bone Microarchitecture and Bone Mineral Density in Men: A 2-Year RCT. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021. 106: e3143.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33693907/

117.Nieschlag, E., et al. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions. Eur J Endocrinol, 2015. 173: R47.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25805894/

118.Steeves, J.A., et al. Cross-sectional association between physical activity and serum testosterone levels in US men: results from NHANES 1999-2004. Andrology, 2016. 4: 465.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26991734/

119.Grossmann, M. Hypogonadism and male obesity: Focus on unresolved questions. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2018. 89: 11.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29683196/

120.Corona, G., et al. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol, 2013. 168: 829.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23482592/

121.Corona G, et al. Treatment of functional hypogonadism besides pharmacological substitution. World J Mens Health, 2019. 38: 256.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31496147/

122.Pasquali R, et al. ESE Clinical Practice Guideline on Endocrine Work-up in Obesity. Eur J Endocrinol 2019. 182: G1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31855556/

123.Rastrelli, G., et al. Pharmacological management of late-onset hypogonadism. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol, 2018. 11: 439.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29505313/

124.Ohlander, S.J., et al. Erythrocytosis Following Testosterone Therapy. Sex Med Rev, 2018. 6: 77.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28526632/

125.Rastrelli, G., et al. Factors affecting spermatogenesis upon gonadotropin-replacement therapy: a meta-analytic study. Andrology, 2014. 2: 794.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25271205/

126.Rambhatla, A. The role of estrogen modulators in male hypogonadism and infertility. Rev Urol, 2016. 18: 66.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27601965/

127.Fentiman, I.S. The endocrinology of male breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer, 2018. 25: R365.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29752333/

128.Traish, A.M., et al. Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and Testosterone Therapy on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Metabolic Syndrome. World J Mens Health, 2018. 36: 199.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30079638/

129.Okada, K. Improved Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Japanese Men With Late-Onset Hypogonadism. Am J Mens Health, 2018: 1403.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27256990/

130.Permpongkosol, S. Effects of 8-Year Treatment of Long-Acting Testosterone Undecanoate on Metabolic Parameters, Urinary Symptoms, Bone Mineral Density, and Sexual Function in Men With Late-Onset Hypogonadism. J Sex Med, 2016: 1199.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27436076/

131.Debruyne, F.M., et al. Testosterone treatment is not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms: prostate health outcomes in the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men. BJU Int, 2017. 119: 216.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27409523/

132.Rastrelli, G., et al. Predictors and clinical consequences of starting androgen therapy in men with low testosterone: results from the SIAMO-NOI registry. J Endocrinol Invest, 2016. 39: 695.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27037688/

133.Calof, O.M., et al. Adverse events associated with testosterone replacement in middle-aged and older men: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2005. 60: 1451.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16339333/

134.Boyle, P., et al. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis. BJU Int, 2016. 118: 731.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26779889/

135.Cui, Y., et al. The effect of androgen-replacement therapy on prostate growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol, 2013. 64: 811.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23567065/

136.Cui, Y., et al. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2014. 17: 132.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24445948/

137.Fernandez-Balsells, M.M., et al. Clinical review 1: Adverse effects of testosterone therapy in adult men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95: 2560.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20525906/

138.Guo, C., et al. Efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy in men with hypogonadism: A meta-analysis study of placebo-controlled trials. Exp Ther Med, 2016. 11: 853.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26998003/

139.Kang, D.Y., et al. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 2015. 94: e410.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25621688/

140.Lopez, D.S. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk? Transl Androl Urol, 2017: 566.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28725600/

141.Watts, E.L. Low Free Testosterone and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Collaborative Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies. Eur Urol, 2018: 585.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30077399/

142.Haider, A. Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Hypogonadal Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy: Observations from 5-Year Median Followup of 3 Registries. J Urol, 2015: 80.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24980615/

143.Wallis, C.J., et al. Survival and cardiovascular events in men treated with testosterone replacement therapy: an intention-to-treat observational cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2016. 4: 498.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27165609/

144.Gray, H. Recurrence of prostate cancer in patients receiving testosterone supplementation for hypogonadism. Am J Health-Syst Pharm, 2015: 536.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25788507/

145.Teeling, F., et al. Testosterone Therapy for High-risk Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Urology, 2019. 126: 16.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30244116/

146.Kardoust Parizi, M., et al. Oncological safety of testosterone replacement therapy in prostate cancer survivors after definitive local therapy: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Urol Oncol, 2019. 37: 637.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31296421/

147.Malkin, C.J., et al. Low serum testosterone and increased mortality in men with coronary heart disease. Heart, 2010. 96: 1821.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20959649/

148.Khaw, K.T., et al. Endogenous testosterone and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in men: European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Prospective Population Study. Circulation, 2007. 116: 2694.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18040028/

149.Laughlin, G.A., et al. Low serum testosterone and mortality in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93: 68.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17911176/

150.Shores, M.M., et al. Low serum testosterone and mortality in male veterans. Arch Intern Med, 2006. 166: 1660.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16908801/

151.Vikan, T., et al. Endogenous sex hormones and the prospective association with cardiovascular disease and mortality in men: the Tromso Study. Eur J Endocrinol, 2009. 161: 435.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19542243/

152.Corona, G., et al. Hypogonadism as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in men: a meta-analytic study. Eur J Endocrinol, 2011. 165: 687.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21852391/

153.Keating, N.L., et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol, 2006. 24: 4448.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16983113/

154.Ohlsson, C., et al. High serum testosterone is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events in elderly men. The MrOS (Osteoporotic Fractures in Men) study in Sweden. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2011. 58: 1674.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21982312/

155.Soisson, V., et al. A J-shaped association between plasma testosterone and risk of ischemic arterial event in elderly men: the French 3C cohort study. Maturitas, 2013. 75: 282.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23706278/

156.Snyder, P.J., et al. Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men. N Engl J Med, 2016. 374: 611.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26886521/

157.Srinivas-Shankar, U., et al. Effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95: 639.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20061435/

158.English, K.M., et al. Low-dose transdermal testosterone therapy improves angina threshold in men with chronic stable angina: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Circulation, 2000. 102: 1906.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11034937/

159.Malkin, C.J., et al. Testosterone therapy in men with moderate severity heart failure: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. Eur Heart J, 2006. 27: 57.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16093267/

160.Mathur, A., et al. Long-term benefits of testosterone replacement therapy on angina threshold and atheroma in men. Eur J Endocrinol, 2009. 161: 443.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19542238/

161.Shores, M.M., et al. Association Between Testosterone Treatment and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Events Among US Male Veterans With Low Testosterone Levels and Multiple Medical Comorbidities. J Am Heart Assoc, 2021. 10: e020562.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34423650/

162.EMA. No consistent evidence of an increased risk of heart problems with testosterone medicines. 2014.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/no-consistent-evidence-increased-risk-heart-problems-testosterone-medicines

163.FDA. Joint Meeting of the Bone, Reproductive and Urologic Drugs Advisory Committee (BRUDAC) and the Drug Safety and Risk Management (DSaRM) Advisory Committee Meeting. Briefing Information for the September 17, 2014.

https://www.fdanews.com/ext/resources/files/06-15/06-02-15-thursdaymeetingmaterials.pdf?1433255493

164.Alexander, G.C., et al. Cardiovascular Risks of Exogenous Testosterone Use Among Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Med, 2017. 130: 293.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27751897/

165.Corona, G., et al. Cardiovascular risk associated with testosterone-boosting medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Opin Drug Saf, 2014. 13: 1327.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25139126/

166.Corona, G., et al. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Risk: Meta-Analysis of Interventional Studies.
J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 820.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29803351/

167.Basaria, S., et al. Effects of Testosterone Administration for 3 Years on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Progression in Older Men With Low or Low-Normal Testosterone Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 2015. 314: 570.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26262795/

168.Budoff, M.J., et al. Testosterone Treatment and Coronary Artery Plaque Volume in Older Men With Low Testosterone. JAMA, 2017. 317: 708.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28241355/

169.Caminiti, G., et al. Effect of long-acting testosterone treatment on functional exercise capacity, skeletal muscle performance, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity in elderly patients with chronic heart failure a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2009. 54: 919.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19712802/

170.Pugh, P.J., et al. Testosterone treatment for men with chronic heart failure. Heart, 2004. 90: 446.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15020527/

171.Sharma, R., et al. Normalization of testosterone level is associated with reduced incidence of myocardial infarction and mortality in men. Eur Heart J, 2015. 36: 2706.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26248567/

172.Brown, D.W., et al. Hematocrit and the risk of coronary heart disease mortality. Am Heart J, 2001. 142: 657.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11579356/

173.Puddu, P.E., et al. Red blood cell count in short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence in the Gubbio population study. Acta Cardiol, 2002. 57: 177.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12088175/

174.Boffetta, P., et al. A U-shaped relationship between haematocrit and mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol, 2013. 42: 601.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23569195/

175.Baillargeon, J., et al. Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy. Mayo Clin Proc, 2015. 90: 1038.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26205547/

176.Sharma, R., et al. Association Between Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Incidence of DVT and Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Veterans Administration Database. Chest, 2016. 150: 563.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27179907/

177.Martinez, C., et al. Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study. BMJ, 2016. 355: i5968.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27903495/

178.Holmegard, H.N., et al. Endogenous sex hormones and risk of venous thromboembolism in women and men. J Thromb Haemost, 2014. 12: 297.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24329981/

179.Glueck, C.J., et al. Testosterone therapy, thrombosis, thrombophilia, cardiovascular events. Metabolism, 2014. 63: 989.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24930993/

180.Smith, A.M., et al. Testosterone does not adversely affect fibrinogen or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in 46 men with chronic stable angina. Eur J Endocrinol, 2005. 152: 285.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15745938/

181.Ayele, H.T., et al. Testosterone replacement therapy and the risk of venous thromboembolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Thromb Res, 2021. 199: 123.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33486321/

182.Madaeva, I.M., et al. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and age-related hypohonadism]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova, 2017. 117: 79.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28777369/

183.Hoyos, C.M., et al. Body compositional and cardiometabolic effects of testosterone therapy in obese men with severe obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eur
J Endocrinol, 2012. 167: 531.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22848006/

184.Mottet, N., et al. Updated Guidelines for Metastatic Hormone-sensitive Prostate Cancer: Abiraterone Acetate Combined with Castration Is Another Standard. Eur Urol, 2017: S0302.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29103760/

185.Eardley, I. The Incidence, Prevalence, and Natural History of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev, 2013. 1: 3.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27784558/

186.Feldman, H.A., et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol, 1994. 151: 54.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8254833/

187.Braun, M., et al. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: results of the ‘Cologne Male Survey’. Int
J Impot Res, 2000. 12: 305.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11416833/

188.Johannes, C.B., et al. Incidence of erectile dysfunction in men 40 to 69 years old: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study. J Urol, 2000. 163: 460.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10647654/

189.Schouten, B.W., et al. Incidence rates of erectile dysfunction in the Dutch general population. Effects of definition, clinical relevance and duration of follow-up in the Krimpen Study. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 58.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15510192/

190.Capogrosso, P., et al. One patient out of four with newly diagnosed erectile dysfunction is a young man--worrisome picture from the everyday clinical practice. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 1833.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23651423/

191.Saitz, T.R., et al. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 409.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652213/

192.Waldinger, M.D. The neurobiological approach to premature ejaculation. J Urol, 2002. 168: 2359.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12441918/

193.Althof, S.E., et al. International Society for Sexual Medicine’s guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2947.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21050394/

194.Hatzimouratidis, K., et al. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. Eur Urol, 2010. 57: 804.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20189712/

195.McMahon, C.G., et al. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1590.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18466262/

196.Carson, C., et al. Premature ejaculation: definition and prevalence. Int J Impot Res, 2006. 18 Suppl 1: S5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16953247/

197.Laumann, E.O., et al. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA, 1999. 281: 537.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10022110/

198.Porst, H., et al. The Premature Ejaculation Prevalence and Attitudes (PEPA) survey: prevalence, comorbidities, and professional help-seeking. Eur Urol, 2007. 51: 816.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16934919/

199.Serefoglu, E.C., et al. Prevalence of the complaint of ejaculating prematurely and the four premature ejaculation syndromes: results from the Turkish Society of Andrology Sexual Health Survey. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 540.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21054799/

200.Gao, J., et al. Prevalence and factors associated with the complaint of premature ejaculation and the four premature ejaculation syndromes: a large observational study in China. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 1874.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23651451/

201.Waldinger, M.D., et al. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1079.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18331260/

202.Serefoglu, E.C., et al. The comparison of premature ejaculation assessment questionnaires and their sensitivity for the four premature ejaculation syndromes: results from the Turkish society of andrology sexual health survey. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 1177.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21269396/

203.Serefoglu, E.C., et al. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 810.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19912501/

204.Zhang, X., et al. Distribution and factors associated with four premature ejaculation syndromes in outpatients complaining of ejaculating prematurely. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 1603.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23534914/

205.Althof, S.E., et al. An update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine’s guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1392.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24848686/

206.Perelman, M. Retarded Ejaculation. Curr Sex Hlth Rep, 2004. 1: 95.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11930-004-0023-2

207.Simons, J.S., et al. Prevalence of sexual dysfunctions: results from a decade of research. Arch Sex Behav, 2001. 30: 177.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11329727/

208.Mercer, C.H., et al. Who reports sexual function problems? Empirical evidence from Britain’s 2000 National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. Sex Transm Infect, 2005. 81: 394.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16199738/

209.Laumann, E.O., et al. Sexual problems among women and men aged 40-80 y: prevalence and correlates identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 39.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15215881/

210.Lindau, S.T., et al. A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United States. N Engl
J Med, 2007. 357: 762.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17715410/

211.Perelman, M.A. Regarding ejaculation: delayed and otherwise [letter to the editor]. J Androl., 2003. 24: 496.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12826687/

212.Perelman, M.A., et al., Evaluation and Treatment of Ejaculatory Disorders, In: Atlas of Male Sexual Dysfunction, T.F. Lue, Editor. 2004, Current Medicine LLC: Philadelphia.

213.Perelman, M.A., et al. Retarded ejaculation. World J Urol, 2006. 24: 645.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17082938/

214.Verma, K.K., et al. The frequency of sexual dysfunctions in patients attending a sex therapy clinic in north India. Arch Sex Behav, 1998. 27: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9604119/

215.Nazareth, I., et al. Problems with sexual function in people attending London general practitioners: cross sectional study. BMJ, 2003. 327: 423.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12933729/

216.DSM, V., American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. 2013, Arlington, VA [access date: 1 June 2013].

https://www.hakjisa.co.kr/common_file/bbs_DSM-5_Update_October2018_NewMaster.pdf

217.Di Sante, S., et al. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 541.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652226/

218.Kinsey, A.C., et al. Sexual behavior in the human male. 1948. Am J Public Health, 2003. 93: 894.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12773346/

219.Chehensse, C., et al. The spinal control of ejaculation revisited: a systematic review and meta-analysis of anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients. Hum Reprod Update, 2013. 19: 507.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23820516/

220.Jefferys, A., et al. The management of retrograde ejaculation: a systematic review and update. Feril Steril, 2012. 97: 306.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22177462/

221.Gandhi, J., et al. The Role of Diabetes Mellitus in Sexual and Reproductive Health: An Overview of Pathogenesis, Evaluation, and Management. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2017. 13: 573.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27875946/

222.Yavetz, H., et al. Retrograde ejaculation. Hum Reprod, 1994. 9: 381.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8006123/

223.Fedder, J., et al. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus: a prospective, controlled study. Andrology, 2013. 1: 602.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23606485/

224.Hylmarova, S., et al. The impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus on male sexual functions and sex hormone levels. Endocr J, 2020. 67: 59.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31619592/

225.Emberton, M., et al. The effect of prostatectomy on symptom severity and quality of life. Br J Urol, 1996. 77: 233.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8800892/

226.Woo, H.H., et al. Preservation of sexual function with the prostatic urethral lift: a novel treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 568.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22172161/

227.Talab, S.S., et al. V403: The impact of Ejaculation-Preserving Photo-selective Vaporization of the Prostate (EP-PVP) on lower urinary tract symptoms and ejaculatory function: results of a multicenter study. J Urol, 2013.

https://www.auajournals.org/doi/full/10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.1792

228.Liu, Y., et al. Impact on Sexual Function of Endoscopic Enucleation vs Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Endourol, 2020. 34: 1064.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32242462/

229.Suarez-Ibarrola, R., et al. Efficacy and safety of aquablation of the prostate for patients with symptomatic benign prostatic enlargement: a systematic review. World J Urol, 2020. 38: 1147.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31559476/

230.Bebi, C., et al. Sexual and ejaculatory function after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and bipolar transurethral enucleation of the prostate: a single-center experience. Int J Impot Res, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33082545/

231.Lindal, E., et al. The lifetime prevalence of psychosexual dysfunction among 55 to 57-year-olds in Iceland. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 1993. 28: 91.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8511669/

232.Blanker, M.H., et al. Erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in a community-based sample of men 50 to 78 years old: prevalence, concern, and relation to sexual activity. Urology, 2001. 57: 763.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11306400/

233.Roberts, R.O., et al. Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms in a community based cohort of older men. J Urol, 2002. 168: 2467.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12441942/

234.Sonmez, N.C., et al. Sexual dysfunction in type III chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) observed in Turkish patients. Int Urol Nephrol, 2011. 43: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20680450/

235.Nickel, J.C., et al. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis: prevalence of painful ejaculation in men with clinical BPH. BJU Int, 2005. 95: 571.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15705082/

236.Mo, M.Q., et al. Sexual dysfunctions and psychological disorders associated with type IIIa chronic prostatitis: a clinical survey in China. Int Urol Nephrol, 2014. 46: 2255.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25158893/

237.Wagenlehner, F.M., et al. National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) symptom evaluation in multinational cohorts of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Eur Urol, 2013. 63: 953.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23141933/

238.Shoskes, D.A., et al. Impact of post-ejaculatory pain in men with category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. J Urol, 2004. 172: 542.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15247725/

239.Ng, Y.H., et al. Haematospermia as a presenting symptom: outcomes of investigation in 300 men. Surgeon, 2013. 11: 35.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22682581/

240.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Hemospermia: diagnosis and management. Urology, 1995. 46: 463.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7571212/

241.Han, M., et al. Association of hemospermia with prostate cancer. J Urol, 2004. 172: 2189.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15538229/

242.Fugl-Meyer, A., et al. Sexual disabilities, problems and satisfaction in 18-74 year old Swedes. Scand J Sexol, 1999. 2: 79.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10980828

243.Quinta Gomes, A.L., et al. Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years. J Sex Res, 2014. 51: 13.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23573897/

244.Martin, S., et al. Clinical and biopsychosocial determinants of sexual dysfunction in middle-aged and older Australian men. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2093.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22759388/

245.Hirshfield, S., et al. Sexual Dysfunction in an Internet Sample of U.S. Men Who Have Sex with Men. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 3104.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19968773/

246.Peixoto, M.M., et al. Prevalence of sexual problems and associated distress among gay and heterosexual men. Sex Relat Ther, 2015. 30: 211.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14681994.2014.986084

247.Najman, J.M., et al. Sexual dysfunction in the Australian population. Aust Fam Physician, 2003.
32: 951.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14650796/

248.Traeen, B., et al. Sexual problems in 18-67-year-old Norwegians. Scand J Public Health, 2010. 38: 445.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20494944/

249.Solstad, K., et al. Frequency of sexual problems and sexual dysfunction in middle-aged Danish men. Arch Sex Behav, 1993. 22: 51.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8435039/

250.Panser, L.A., et al. Sexual function of men ages 40 to 79 years: the Olmsted County Study of Urinary Symptoms and Health Status Among Men. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1995. 43: 1107.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7560700/

251.Helgason, A.R., et al. Sexual desire, erection, orgasm and ejaculatory functions and their importance to elderly Swedish men: a population-based study. Age Ageing, 1996. 25: 285.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8831873/

252.Macfarlane, G.J., et al. The relationship between sexual life and urinary condition in the French community. J Clin Epidemiol, 1996. 49: 1171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8826998/

253.Pinnock, C.B., et al. Erectile dysfunction in the community: a prevalence study. Med J Aust, 1999. 171: 353.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10590723/

254.Moreira, E.D., Jr., et al. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian study of sexual behavior. Urology, 2001. 58: 583.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11597544/

255.Meuleman, E.J., et al. [Erectile dysfunction: prevalence and effect on the quality of life; Boxmeer study]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 2001. 145: 576.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11293998/

256.Blanker, M.H., et al. Correlates for erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in older Dutch men: a community-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2001. 49: 436.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11347788/

257.Martin-Morales, A., et al. Prevalence and independent risk factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain: results of the Epidemiologia de la Disfuncion Erectil Masculina Study. J Urol, 2001. 166: 569.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11458070/

258.Moreira, E.D., Jr., et al. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction in Santos, southeastern Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J, 2002. 120: 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11994773/

259.Morillo, L.E., et al. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela: a population-based study (DENSA). Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14 Suppl 2: S10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12161763/

260.Richters, J., et al. Sex in Australia: sexual difficulties in a representative sample of adults. Aust N Z J Public Health, 2003. 27: 164.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14696707/

261.Rosen, R., et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging male (MSAM-7). Eur Urol, 2003. 44: 637.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14644114/

262.Rosen, R.C., et al. The multinational Men’s Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study:
I. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and related health concerns in the general population. Curr Med Res Opin, 2004. 20: 607.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15171225/

263.Shiri, R., et al. Prevalence and severity of erectile dysfunction in 50 to 75-year-old Finnish men.
J Urol, 2003. 170: 2342.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14634411/

264.Moreira, E.D., Jr., et al. A population survey of sexual activity, sexual dysfunction and associated help-seeking behavior in middle-aged and older adults in Germany. Eur J Med Res, 2005. 10: 434.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16287605/

265.Moreira Junior, E.D., et al. Prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among mature adults in Brazil: data from the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. Sao Paulo Med J, 2005. 123: 234.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16358099/

266.Brock, G., et al. Sexual disorders and associated help-seeking behaviors in Canada. Can J Urol, 2006. 13: 2953.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16515749/

267.De Almeida Claro, J., et al. Could a rural lifestyle decrease the prevalence of erectile dysfunction? BJU Int, 2007. 99: 127.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17034491/

268.Ahn, T.Y., et al. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in Korean men: results of an epidemiological study. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 1269.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17635695/

269.Moreira, E.D., et al. Sexual difficulties and help-seeking among mature adults in Australia: results from the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviours. Sex Health, 2008. 5: 227.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18771637/

270.Chew, K.K., et al. Male erectile dysfunction: its prevalence in Western australia and associated sociodemographic factors. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 60.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17645447/

271.Teles, A.G., et al. Prevalence, severity, and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in a representative sample of 3,548 portuguese men aged 40 to 69 years attending primary healthcare centers: results of the Portuguese erectile dysfunction study. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1317.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18194181/

272.Moreira, E.D., et al. Sexual problems and help-seeking behaviour in adults in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. BJU Int, 2008. 101: 1005.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18261155/

273.Laumann, E.O., et al. A population-based survey of sexual activity, sexual problems and associated help-seeking behavior patterns in mature adults in the United States of America. Int J Impot Res, 2009. 21: 171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19242482/

274.Buvat, J., et al. Sexual problems and associated help-seeking behavior patterns: results of a population-based survey in France. Int J Urol, 2009. 16: 632.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19456984/

275.Corona, G., et al. Age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1362.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19929914/

276.Oyelade, B.O., et al. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study. Pan Afr Med J, 2016. 24: 124.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27642462/

277.Cayan, S., et al. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men over 40 years of age in Turkey: Results from the Turkish Society of Andrology Male Sexual Health Study Group. Turk J Urol, 2017. 43: 122.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28717533/

278.Quilter, M., et al. Male Sexual Function in New Zealand: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey of the Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Men Aged 40-70 Years. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 928.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28673435/

279.Calzo, J.P., et al. Erectile Dysfunction in a Sample of Sexually Active Young Adult Men from a US Cohort: Demographic, Metabolic, and Mental Health Correlates. J Urol, 2020: 101097ju0000000000001367.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32935616/

280.Goldstein, I., et al. Epidemiology Update of Erectile Dysfunction in Eight Countries with High Burden. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31416758/

281.Molina-Vega, M., et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in young nondiabetic obese men: results from a regional study. Asian J Androl, 2020. 22: 372.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31603141/

282.Dunn, K.M., et al. Sexual problems: a study of the prevalence and need for health care in the general population. Fam Pract, 1998. 15: 519.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10078790/

283.Fugl-Meyer, K., et al. Sexual disabilities are not singularities. Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14: 487.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12494283/

284.Rowland, D., et al. Self-reported premature ejaculation and aspects of sexual functioning and satisfaction. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 225.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16429622/

285.Nolazco, C., et al. Prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Argentina. Int J Impot Res, 2004. 16: 69.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14963474/

286.Basile Fasolo, C., et al. Premature ejaculation: prevalence and associated conditions in a sample of 12,558 men attending the andrology prevention week 2001--a study of the Italian Society of Andrology (SIA). J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 376.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422869/

287.Stulhofer, A., et al. Prevalence of erectile and ejaculatory difficulties among men in Croatia. Croat Med J, 2006. 47: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16489704/

288.Shindel, A.W., et al. Premature ejaculation in infertile couples: prevalence and correlates. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 485.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18086172/

289.Brock, G.B., et al. Canadian male sexual health council survey to assess prevalence and treatment of premature ejaculation in Canada. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 2115.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19572961/

290.Son, H., et al. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey. J Androl, 2010. 31: 540.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20671139/

291.Amidu, N., et al. Prevalence of male sexual dysfunction among Ghanaian populace: myth or reality? Int J Impot Res, 2010. 22: 337.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20927122/

292.Liang, C.Z., et al. Prevalence of premature ejaculation and its correlation with chronic prostatitis in Chinese men. Urology, 2010. 76: 962.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20381832/

293.Park, H.J., et al. Prevalence of premature ejaculation in young and middle-aged men in Korea: a multicenter internet-based survey from the Korean Andrological Society. Asian J Androl, 2010. 12: 880.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20676115/

294.Vakalopoulos, I., et al. Prevalence of ejaculatory disorders in urban men: results of a random-sample survey. Andrologia, 2011. 43: 327.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21729128/

295.Christensen, B.S., et al. Sexual dysfunctions and difficulties in denmark: prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors. Arch Sex Behav, 2011. 40: 121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20169469/

296.Son, H., et al. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 2062.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21235722/

297.Tang, W.S., et al. Prevalence and correlates of premature ejaculation in a primary care setting: a preliminary cross-sectional study. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 2071.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21492404/

298.Mialon, A., et al. Sexual dysfunctions among young men: prevalence and associated factors.
J Adolesc Health, 2012. 51: 25.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22727073/

299.Shaeer, O., et al. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): ejaculatory function, penile anatomy, and contraceptive usage among Arabic-speaking Internet users in the Middle East. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 425.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21676184/

300.Shindel, A.W., et al. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation in men who have sex with men.
J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 576.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22214402/

301.McMahon, C.G., et al. Premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction prevalence and attitudes in the Asia-Pacific region. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 454.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22023395/

302.Lotti, F., et al. Clinical correlates of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation in men with couple infertility. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2698.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22897716/

303.Zhang, H., et al. Sexual dysfunction among Chinese married men aged 30-60 years: a population-based study in Hong Kong. Urology, 2013. 81: 334.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23374796/

304.Lee, S.W., et al. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and its clinical characteristics in Korean men according to different definitions. Int J Impot Res, 2013. 25: 12.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22931761/

305.Hwang, I., et al. Self-Reported Prevalence of and Attitudes toward Premature Ejaculation in a Community-Based Study of Married Couples. World J Mens Health, 2013. 31: 70.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23658869/

306.Vansintejan, J., et al. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV(+) gay men. HIV AIDS (Auckl), 2013. 5: 89.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23671398/

307.Shaeer, O. The global online sexuality survey (GOSS): The United States of America in 2011 Chapter III--Premature ejaculation among English-speaking male Internet users. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 1882.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23668379/

308.Karabakan, M., et al. The prevalence of premature ejaculation in young Turkish men. Andrologia, 2016. 48: 895.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26803992/

309.Gao, J., et al. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation. Sex Med, 2017. 5: e37.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28041923/

310.Gratzke, C., et al. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 445.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092448/

311.NIH, C.D.P.o.I. NIH Consensus Conference. Impotence. JAMA, 1993. 270: 83.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8510302/

312.Fisher, W.A., et al. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a shared sexual concern of couples I: couple conceptions of ED. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 2746.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19694926/

313.Salonia, A., et al. Is erectile dysfunction a reliable proxy of general male health status? The case for the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2708.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22897643/

314.Corona, G., et al. Assessment of the relational factor in male patients consulting for sexual dysfunction: the concept of couple sexual dysfunction. J Androl, 2006. 27: 795.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16809271/

315.Vlachopoulos, C.V., et al. Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2013. 6: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23300267/

316.Dong, J.Y., et al. Erectile dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2011. 58: 1378.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21920268/

317.Gandaglia, G., et al. A systematic review of the association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 968.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24011423/

318.Zhao, B., et al. Erectile Dysfunction Predicts Cardiovascular Events as an Independent Risk Factor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1005.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31104857/

319.Pozzi, E., et al. Longitudinal Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction-Which Patients Deserve More Attention? J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 1489.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32340919/

320.Pastuszak, A.W., et al. Erectile dysfunction as a marker for cardiovascular disease diagnosis and intervention: a cost analysis. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 975.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25728904/

321.Besiroglu, H., et al. The relationship between metabolic syndrome, its components, and erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 1309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25872648

322.Jackson, G., et al. Cardiovascular aspects of sexual medicine. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1608.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20388161/

323.Cao, S., et al. Association of quantity and duration of smoking with erectile dysfunction: a dose-response meta-analysis. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 2376.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25052869/

324.Binmoammar, T.A., et al. The impact of poor glycaemic control on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. JRSM Open, 2016.
7: 2054270415622602.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26981254/

325.Glina, F.P.A., et al. What Is the Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Erectile Function? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sex Med Rev, 2017. 5: 393.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28526630/

326.Sansone, A., et al. Serum Homocysteine Levels in Men with and without Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Endocrinol, 2018. 2018: 7424792.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30158975/

327.Corona, G., et al. Sexual dysfunction at the onset of type 2 diabetes: the interplay of depression, hormonal and cardiovascular factors. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 2065.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25041930/

328.Pizzol, D., et al. Associations between body mass index, waist circumference and erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and META-analysis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2020. 21: 657.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32002782/

329.Sivaratnam, L., et al. Behavior-Related Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33223424/

330.Alberti, L., et al. Erectile dysfunction in heart failure patients: a critical reappraisal. Andrology, 2013. 1: 177.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23339018/

331.Baumhakel, M., et al. Cardiovascular risk, drugs and erectile function--a systematic analysis. Int
J Clin Pract, 2011. 65: 289.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21314866/

332.Trinchieri, M., et al. Erectile and Ejaculatory Dysfunction Associated with Use of Psychotropic Drugs: A Systematic Review. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 1354.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34247952/

333.Lin, W.Y., et al. Atrial fibrillation is associated with increased risk of erectile dysfunction: A nationwide population-based cohort study. Int J Cardiol, 2015. 190: 106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25918058/

334.Farag, Y.M., et al. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004. Atherosclerosis, 2016. 252: 61.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27505344/

335.Caretta, N., et al. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Endocrine, 2016. 53: 831.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26758995/

336.Salem, S., et al. Serum uric acid as a risk predictor for erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1118.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24621054/

337.Zhang, Y., et al. Serum Folic Acid and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sex Med, 2021. 9: 100356.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34051538/

338.Liu, Q., et al. Erectile Dysfunction and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1073.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29960891/

339.Velurajah, R., et al. Erectile dysfunction in patients with anxiety disorders: a systematic review. Int
J Impot Res, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33603242/

340.Perez-Garcia, L.F., et al. Sexual function and reproduction can be impaired in men with rheumatic diseases: A systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2020. 50: 557.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32165034/

341.Zhao, S., et al. Significant Increase of Erectile Dysfunction in Men With Post-stroke: A Comprehensive Review. Front Neurol, 2021. 12: 671738.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34393971/

342.Luo, L., et al. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res, 2020. 32: 159.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31263249/

343.Xu, J., et al. Risk of osteoporosis in patients with erectile dysfunction: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 2021. 100: e26326.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34128874/

344.Pyrgidis, N., et al. Renal Transplantation Improves Erectile Function in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Urol, 2021. 205: 1009.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33320719/

345.Rahman, I.A., et al. Effects of renal transplantation on erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34103695/

346.Hsu, C.Y., et al. Gout is associated with organic and psychogenic erectile dysfunction. Eur J Intern Med, 2015. 26: 691.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26089189/

347.Kellesarian, S.V., et al. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 129.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29795528/

348.Molina Leyva, A., et al. Sexual dysfunction in psoriasis: a systematic review. [Review]. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 2015. 29: 649.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25424331/

349.Ji, S., et al. Erectile dysfunction in patients with plaque psoriasis: the relation of depression and cardiovascular factors. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 96.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26865100/

350.Egeberg, A., et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 380.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28109691/

351.Fan, D., et al. Male sexual dysfunction and ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and metaanalysis. J Rheumatol, 2015. 42: 252.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25448789/

352.Duman, D.G., et al. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective Pilot Study. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 383.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26853046/

353.Kim, M., et al. Erectile dysfunction in patients with liver disease related to chronic hepatitis B. Clin Mol Hepatol, 2015. 21: 352.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26770923/

354.Liu, L.H., et al. Chronic periodontitis and the risk of erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res, 2017. 29: 43.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27829669/

355.Law, G., et al. Correlation in Severity Between Glaucoma and Erectile Dysfunction. J Glaucoma, 2016. 25: 716.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27552506/

356.Kao, C.C., et al. Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Erectile Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2016. 22: 1065.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26863266/

357.Chao, C.H., et al. Increased risk of organic erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Andrology, 2015. 3: 666.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26198797/

358.Su, V.Y., et al. Allergic rhinitis and risk of erectile dysfunction--a nationwide population-based study. Allergy, 2013. 68: 440.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23346992/

359.Hughes, T.L., et al. Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Systematic Review. Urology, 2021. 156: 308.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33930458/

360.Duran, M.B., et al. Variations in the Number of Patients Presenting with Andrological Problems During the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Possible Reasons for These Variations: A Multi-Center Study. Sex Med, 2020: 100292.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33318798/

361.Sansone, A., et al. Addressing male sexual and reproductive health in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak. J Endocrinol Invest, 2020: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32661947/

362.Gan, Z.S., et al. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cycling and Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev, 2021. 9: 304.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32147498/

363.Rovere, G., et al. Epidemiology and aetiology of male and female sexual dysfunctions related to pelvic ring injuries: a systematic review. Int Orthop, 2021. 45: 2687.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34378143/

364.Schmid, F.A., et al. Erectile dysfunction and penile rehabilitation after pelvic fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 2021. 11: e045117.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049910/

365.Chew, P.Y., et al. The Association Between Female Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Dysfunction in the Male Partner: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33303390/

366.Seftel, A.D., et al. Coexisting lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction: a systematic review of epidemiological data. Int J Clin Pract, 2013. 67: 32.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23082930/

367.Light, A., et al. Erectile Function Following Surgery for Benign Prostatic Obstruction: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. Eur Urol, 2021. 80: 174.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34127315/

368.Verze, P., et al. The impact of surgery for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic enlargement on both erectile and ejaculatory function: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30996268/

369.Li, H.J., et al. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a meta-analysis. World J Urol, 2016. 34: 1009.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26546073/

370.Chung, S.D., et al. A nationwide population-based study on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and ED. Int J Impot Res, 2013. 25: 224.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23552579/

371.Corona, G., et al. Interplay Between Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 2291.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26552599/

372.Fainberg, J., et al. Erectile Dysfunction is a Transient Complication of Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Urol, 2021. 205: 664.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33026920/

373.Murray, K.S., et al. A prospective study of erectile function after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. BJU Int, 2015. 116: 190.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25430505/

374.Feng, C., et al. The relationship between erectile dysfunction and open urethroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 2060.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23656595/

375.Redmond, E., et al. Comprehensive Prospective Assessment of Patient-reported Outcomes Following Urethroplasty. Urology, 2020. 141: 162.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32283167/

376.D’Hulst, P., et al. Patient-reported outcomes after buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for bulbar urethral strictures: results of a prospective single-centre cohort study. BJU Int, 2020. 126: 684.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32512634/

377.Gupta, B.P., et al. The effect of lifestyle modification and cardiovascular risk factor reduction on erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med, 2011. 171: 1797.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21911624/

378.Gerbild, H., et al. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies. Sex Med, 2018. 6: 75.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29661646/

379.Collins, C.E., et al. Improvement in erectile function following weight loss in obese men: the SHED-IT randomized controlled trial. Obes Res Clin Pract, 2013. 7: e450.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24459689/

380.Glina, S., et al. Modifying risk factors to prevent and treat erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013.
10: 115.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22971247/

381.Vlachopoulos, C., et al. Erectile dysfunction in the cardiovascular patient. Eur Heart J, 2013.
34: 2034.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23616415/

382.Cui, Y., et al. The effect of statins on erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1367.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24628781/

383.Cai, X., et al. The role of statins in erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl, 2014. 16: 461.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24556747/

384.Rasmussen, L., et al. Cardiovascular drugs and erectile dysfunction - a symmetry analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2015. 80: 1219.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26094913/

385.Emanu, J.C., et al. Erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: prevalence, medical treatments, and psychosocial interventions. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care, 2016. 10: 102.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26808052/

386.Modh, R.A., et al. Sexual dysfunction after cystectomy and urinary diversion. Nat Rev Urol, 2014. 11: 445.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24980191/

387.Celentano, V., et al. Sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer surgery. Int J Colorectal Dis, 2017. 32: 1523.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28497404/

388.Walz, J., et al. A Critical Analysis of the Current Knowledge of Surgical Anatomy of the Prostate Related to Optimisation of Cancer Control and Preservation of Continence and Erection in Candidates for Radical Prostatectomy: An Update. Eur Urol, 2016. 70: 301.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26850969/

389.Capogrosso, P., et al. Erectile Recovery After Radical Pelvic Surgery: Methodological Challenges and Recommendations for Data Reporting. J Sex Med, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31668729/

390.Salonia, A., et al. Sexual Rehabilitation After Treatment For Prostate Cancer-Part 2: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015).
J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 297.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28262100/

391.Hunt, A.A., et al. Risk of erectile dysfunction after modern radiotherapy for intact prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32647352/

392.Nolsøe, A.B., et al. Neglected side effects to curative prostate cancer treatments. Int J Impot Res, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33318637/

393.Maggi, M., et al. Psychological impact of different primary treatments for prostate cancer: A critical analysis. Andrologia, 2019. 51: e13157.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30281167/

394.Fenton, J.J., et al. Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA, 2018. 319: 1914.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29801018/

395.Lardas, M., et al. Quality of Life Outcomes after Primary Treatment for Clinically Localised Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol, 2017. 72: 869.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28757301/

396.Donovan, J.L., et al. Patient-Reported Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med, 2016. 375: 1425.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27626365/

397.Volz-Sidiropoulou, E., et al. Factor Analysis of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite in a Patient Group after Primary (External Beam Radiotherapy and Permanent Iodine-125 Brachytherapy) and Postoperative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. Curr Urol, 2008. 2: 122.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232422608

398.Szymanski, K.M., et al. Development and validation of an abbreviated version of the expanded prostate cancer index composite instrument for measuring health-related quality of life among prostate cancer survivors. Urology, 2010. 76: 1245.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20350762/

399.Mottet, N., et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. Part 1: Screening, Diagnosis, and Local Treatment with Curative Intent. Eur Urol, 2016.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27568654/

400.Salonia, A., et al. Prevention and management of postprostatectomy sexual dysfunctions. Part 1: choosing the right patient at the right time for the right surgery. Eur Urol, 2012. 62: 261.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22575909/

401.Boyle, H.J., et al. Updated recommendations of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology on prostate cancer management in older patients. Eur J Cancer, 2019. 116: 116.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31195356/

402.Sanda, M.G., et al. Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors.
N Engl J Med, 2008. 358: 1250.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18354103/

403.Tal, R., et al. Erectile function recovery rate after radical prostatectomy: a meta-analysis. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 2538.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19515209/

404.Schauer, I., et al. Have rates of erectile dysfunction improved within the past 17 years after radical prostatectomy? A systematic analysis of the control arms of prospective randomized trials on penile rehabilitation. Andrology, 2015. 3: 661.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26198796/

405.Capogrosso, P., et al. Are We Improving Erectile Function Recovery After Radical Prostatectomy? Analysis of Patients Treated over the Last Decade. Eur Urol, 2019. 75: 221.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30237021/

406.Khoder, W.Y., et al. Do we need the nerve sparing radical prostatectomy techniques (intrafascial vs. interfascial) in men with erectile dysfunction? Results of a single-centre study. World J Urol, 2015. 33: 301.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24752607/

407.Ju, I.E., et al. Surgeon Experience and Erectile Function After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review. Sex Med Rev, 2021. 9: 650.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34219004/

408.Glickman, L., et al. Changes in continence and erectile function between 2 and 4 years after radical prostatectomy. J Urol, 2009. 181: 731.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19091349/

409.Ficarra, V., et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting potency rates after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol, 2012. 62: 418.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22749850/

410.Stolzenburg, J.U., et al. Effect of surgical approach on erectile function recovery following bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: An evaluation utilising data from a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy multicentre trial of tadalafil vs placebo. BJU International, 2015. 116: 251.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25560809/

411.Haglind, E., et al. Urinary Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction after Robotic Versus Open Radical Prostatectomy: A Prospective, Controlled, Nonrandomised Trial. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 216.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25770484/

412.Yaxley, J.W., et al. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy versus open radical retropubic prostatectomy: early outcomes from a randomised controlled phase 3 study. Lancet, 2016. 388: 1057.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27474375/

413.Isgoren, A., et al. Erectile function outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: is it superior to open retropubic or laparoscopic approach? Sex Med Rev, 2014. 2: 10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27784540/

414.Stember, D.S., et al. The concept of erectile function preservation (penile rehabilitation) in the patient after brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy, 2012. 11: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22330103/

415.Gaither, T.W., et al. The Natural History of Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatic Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 1071.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28859870/

416.Loi, M., et al. Sexual Function in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Radiotherapy For Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1409.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31303575/

417.Fallara, G., et al. Erectile function after focal therapy for localized prostate cancer: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res, 2021. 33: 418.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32999435/

418.Valerio, M., et al. New and Established Technology in Focal Ablation of the Prostate: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol, 2017. 71: 17.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27595377/

419.van der Poel, H.G., et al. Focal Therapy in Primary Localised Prostate Cancer: The European Association of Urology Position in 2018. Eur Urol, 2018. 74: 84.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29373215/

420.Hatzichristou, D., et al. Diagnosing Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women: Sexual History Taking and the Role of Symptom Scales and Questionnaires. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1166.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27436074/

421.The Process of Care Consensus Panel. The process of care model for evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res, 1999. 11: 59.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10356665/

422.Althof, S.E., et al. Standard operating procedures for taking a sexual history. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 26.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22970717/

423.Petrone, L., et al. Structured interview on erectile dysfunction (SIEDY): a new, multidimensional instrument for quantification of pathogenetic issues on erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res, 2003. 15: 210.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12904808/

424.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Validation of the erection hardness score. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 1626.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17888069/

425.Beck, A.T., et al., Manual for the Beck depression inventory-II. 1996, San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

https://www.nctsn.org/measures/beck-depression-inventory-second-edition

426.Davis-Joseph, B., et al. Accuracy of the initial history and physical examination to establish the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Urology, 1995. 45: 498.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7879338/

427.Ghanem, H.M., et al. SOP: physical examination and laboratory testing for men with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 108.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22524416/

428.Buvat, J., et al. Endocrine aspects of male sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20388162/

429.Bhasin, S., et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95: 2536.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20525905/

430.O’Connor, D.B., et al. The relationships between sex hormones and sexual function in middle-aged and older European men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011. 96: E1577.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21849522/

431.Heidenreich, A., et al. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 124.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24207135/

432.Maggi, M., et al. Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA). J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 661.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22524444/

433.Miner, M., et al. Cardiometabolic risk and female sexual health: the Princeton III summary. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 641.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22372651/

434.Gazzaruso, C., et al. Erectile dysfunction can improve the effectiveness of the current guidelines for the screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in diabetes. Endocrine, 2011. 40: 273.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21861245/

435.Turek, S.J., et al. Sexual dysfunction as a marker of cardiovascular disease in males with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2013. 36: 3222.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23780949/

436.Tanaka, Y., et al. Association of Erectile Dysfunction with Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Med, 2020. 133: 613.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31743659/

437.Vlachopoulos, C., et al. Prediction of cardiovascular events with aortic stiffness in patients with erectile dysfunction. Hypertension, 2014. 64: 672.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24980671/

438.Omland, T., et al. Relation of Erectile Dysfunction to Subclinical Myocardial Injury. Am J Cardiol, 2016. 118: 1821.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27780552/

439.Fang, S.C., et al. Changes in erectile dysfunction over time in relation to Framingham cardiovascular risk in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey. J Sex Med, 2015. 12-1.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266621050

440.Nehra, A., et al. The Princeton III Consensus recommendations for the management of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc, 2012. 87: 766.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22862865/

441.DeBusk, R., et al. Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of The Princeton Consensus Panel. Am J Cardiol, 2000. 86: 175.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10913479/

442.Kostis, J.B., et al. Sexual dysfunction and cardiac risk (the Second Princeton Consensus Conference). Am J Cardiol, 2005. 96: 313.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16018863/

443.Zou, Z., et al. The Role of Nocturnal Penile Tumescence and Rigidity (NPTR) Monitoring in the Diagnosis of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction: A Review. Sex Med Rev, 2019. 7: 442.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30612976/

444.Qin, F., et al. Advantages and limitations of sleep-related erection and rigidity monitoring: a review. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 192.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29855552/

445.Hatzichristou, D.G., et al. Hemodynamic characterization of a functional erection. Arterial and corporeal veno-occlusive function in patients with a positive intracavernosal injection test. Eur Urol, 1999. 36: 60.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10364657/

446.Sikka, S.C., et al. Standardization of vascular assessment of erectile dysfunction: standard operating procedures for duplex ultrasound. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 120.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22970798/

447.Pathak, R.A., et al. Novel Evidence-Based Classification of Cavernous Venous Occlusive Disease.
J Urol, 2016. 196: 1223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27164516/

448.Capogrosso, P., et al. Low-Intensity Shock Wave Therapy in Sexual Medicine-Clinical Recommendations from the European Society of Sexual Medicine (ESSM). J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1490.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31447380/

449.Glina, S., et al. SOP: corpus cavernosum assessment (cavernosography/cavernosometry). J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 111.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22971225/

450.Wang, T.D., et al. Clinical and Imaging Outcomes up to 1 Year Following Balloon Angioplasty for Isolated Penile Artery Stenoses in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction: The PERFECT-2 Study.
J Endovasc Ther, 2016. 23: 867.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27629440/

451.Li, K., et al. The Relationships of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, Erectile Function and General Psychological Health. Sex Med, 2021. 9: 100386.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34273785/

452.Nguyen, H.M.T., et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men-A Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors. Sex Med Rev, 2017. 5: 508.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28642047/

453.Carvalho, J., et al. The Relationship Between COVID-19 Confinement, Psychological Adjustment, and Sexual Functioning, in a Sample of Portuguese Men and Women. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 1191.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34116985/

454.McCabe, M.P., et al. A systematic review of the psychosocial outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction: does the impact of erectile dysfunction extend beyond a man’s inability to have sex?
J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 347.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24251371/

455.Rosen, R.C., et al. Men with Sexual Problems and Their Partners: Findings from the International Survey of Relationships. Arch Sex Behav, 2016. 45: 159.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26228991/

456.Walther, A., et al. Psychobiological Protective Factors Modifying the Association Between Age and Sexual Health in Men: Findings From the Men’s Health 40+ Study. Am J Mens Health, 2017. 11: 737.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28413941/

457.Tavares, I.M., et al. The Role of Cognitive Processing Factors in Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Women and Men: A Systematic Review. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 403.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32402763/

458.Ejder Apay, S., et al. The Sexual Beliefs of Turkish Men: Comparing the Beliefs of Men With and Without Erectile Dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther, 2015. 41: 661.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25256444/

459.Rowland, D.L., et al. Self-efficacy as a relevant construct in understanding sexual response and dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther, 2015. 41: 60.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24328698/

460.Brotto, L., et al. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.
J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 538.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27045257/

461.Giuri, S., et al. Cognitive Attentional Syndrome and Metacognitive Beliefs in Male Sexual Dysfunction: An Exploratory Study. Am J Mens Health, 2017. 11: 592.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27283433/

462.Derogatis, L.R., et al. The Brief Symptom Inventory: an introductory report. Psychol Med, 1983.
13: 595.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6622612/

463.Nobre, P.J., et al. Dysfunctional sexual beliefs as vulnerability factors to sexual dysfunction. J Sex Res, 2006. 43: 68.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16817069/

464.Nobre, P.J., et al. Sexual modes questionnaire: measure to assess the interaction among cognitions, emotions, and sexual response. J Sex Res, 2003. 40: 368.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14735411/

465.Parent, M.C., et al. Heterosexual Self-Presentation, Identity Management, and Sexual Functioning Among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Arch Sex Behav, 2021. 50: 3155.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34462841/

466.Fruhauf, S., et al. Efficacy of psychological interventions for sexual dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Sex Behav, 2013. 42: 915.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23559141/

467.Montorsi, F., et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in men. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 3572.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21040491/

468.Hatzichristou, D., et al. Recommendations for the clinical evaluation of men and women with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 337.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092443/

469.Hatzimouratidis, K., et al. Pharmacotherapy for Erectile Dysfunction: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 465.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27045254/

470.Moyad, M.A., et al. Prevention and treatment of erectile dysfunction using lifestyle changes and dietary supplements: what works and what is worthless, part II. Urol Clin North Am, 2004. 31: 259.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15123406/

471.Williams, P., et al. Men’s beliefs about treatment for erectile dysfunction-what influences treatment use? A systematic review. Int J Impot Res, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32231275/

472.Yuan, J., et al. Comparative effectiveness and safety of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eur Urol, 2013. 63: 902.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23395275/

473.Salonia, A., et al. Sildenafil in erectile dysfunction: a critical review. Curr Med Res Opin, 2003.
19: 241.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12841917/

474.Lue, T.F. Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med, 2000. 342: 1802.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10853004/

475.Goldstein, I., et al. Oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil Study Group.
N Engl J Med, 1998. 338: 1397.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9580646/

476.Moncada, I., et al. Efficacy of sildenafil citrate at 12 hours after dosing: re-exploring the therapeutic window. Eur Urol, 2004. 46: 357.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15306108/

477.Giuliano, F., et al. Safety of sildenafil citrate: review of 67 double-blind placebo-controlled trials and the postmarketing safety database. Int J Clin Pract, 2010. 64: 240.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19900167/

478.Tsertsvadze, A., et al. Oral sildenafil citrate (viagra) for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of harms. Urology, 2009. 74: 831.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19592078/

479.Goldstein, I., et al. Oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. 1998. J Urol, 2002.
167: 1197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11905901/

480.Goldstein, I., et al. Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil by Age in Men With Erectile Dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 852.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27114196/

481.Curran, M., et al. Tadalafil. Drugs, 2003. 63: 2203.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14498756/

482.Bella, A.J., et al. Tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Curr Urol Rep, 2003. 4: 472.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14622501/

483.Ventimiglia, E., et al. The safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction. Expert Opin Drug Saf, 2016. 15: 141.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26752541/

484.Chen, L., et al. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A trade-off network meta-analysis. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 674.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25817916/

485.Zhou, Z., et al. Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerance of Tadalafil Daily Compared With Tadalafil On-Demand in Treating Men With Erectile Dysfunction. Sexual medicine, 2019. 7: 282.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31307951/

486.Paduch, D.A., et al. Effects of 12 weeks of tadalafil treatment on ejaculatory and orgasmic dysfunction and sexual satisfaction in patients with mild to severe erectile dysfunction: integrated analysis of 17 placebo-controlled studies. BJU Int, 2013. 111: 334.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23356749/

487.Wang, Y., et al. Tadalafil 5 mg Once Daily Improves Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Low Urin Tract Symptoms, 2018. 10: 84.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29341503/

488.Gacci, M., et al. Latest Evidence on the Use of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Eur Urol, 2016. 70: 124.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26806655/

489.Roehrborn, C.G., et al. Erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) combined responders to tadalafil after 12 weeks of treatment. BJU Int, 2016. 118: 153.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26765325/

490.Keating, G.M., et al. Vardenafil: a review of its use in erectile dysfunction. Drugs, 2003. 63: 2673.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14636086/

491.Capogrosso, P., et al. Time of onset of vardenafil orodispersible tablet in a real-life setting - looking beyond randomized clinical trials. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol, 2017. 10: 339.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28129714/

492.Chung, E., et al. A state of art review on vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction and associated underlying diseases. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2011. 12: 1341.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21548725/

493.Sanford, M. Vardenafil orodispersible tablet. Drugs, 2012. 72: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22191797/

494.Debruyne, F.M., et al. Time to onset of action of vardenafil: a retrospective analysis of the pivotal trials for the orodispersible and film-coated tablet formulations. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 2912.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21883954/

495.Gittelman, M., et al. The POTENT II randomised trial: efficacy and safety of an orodispersible vardenafil formulation for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Int J Clin Pract, 2010. 64: 594.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20456213/

496.Sperling, H., et al. The POTENT I randomized trial: efficacy and safety of an orodispersible vardenafil formulation for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1497.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20233275/

497.Wang, R., et al. Selectivity of avanafil, a PDE5 inhibitor for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: implications for clinical safety and improved tolerability. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2122.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22759639/

498.Kyle, J.A., et al. Avanafil for erectile dysfunction. Ann Pharmacother, 2013. 47: 1312.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24259695/

499.Goldstein, I., et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of avanafil in subjects with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 1122.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22248153/

500.Hellstrom, W.J., et al. Efficacy of Avanafil 15 Minutes after Dosing in Men with Erectile Dysfunction: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study. J Urol, 2015.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25591992/

501.Wang, H., et al. The effectiveness and safety of avanafil for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin, 2014. 30: 1565.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24701971/

502.Corona, G., et al. The safety and efficacy of Avanafil, a new 2<sup>nd</sup> generation PDE5i: Comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 2016. 15: 237.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26646748/

503.Mulhall, J.P., et al. A phase 3, placebo controlled study of the safety and efficacy of avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. J Urol, 2013. 189: 2229.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23219537/

504.Madeira, C.R., et al. Efficacy and safety of oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction: a network meta-analysis and multicriteria decision analysis. World J Urol, 2021.
39: 953.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32388784/

505.Burns, P.R., et al. Treatment satisfaction of men and partners following switch from on-demand phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy to tadalafil 5mg once daily. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 720.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25615445

506.Behr-Roussel, D., et al. Chronic sildenafil improves erectile function and endothelium-dependent cavernosal relaxations in rats: lack of tachyphylaxis. Eur Urol, 2005. 47: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15582254/

507.Ferrini, M.G., et al. Vardenafil prevents fibrosis and loss of corporal smooth muscle that occurs after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection in the rat. Urology, 2006. 68: 429.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16904479/

508.Ferrini, M.G., et al. Long-term continuous treatment with sildenafil ameliorates aging-related erectile dysfunction and the underlying corporal fibrosis in the rat. Biol Reprod, 2007. 76: 915.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17287493/

509.Kovanecz, I., et al. Chronic daily tadalafil prevents the corporal fibrosis and veno-occlusive dysfunction that occurs after cavernosal nerve resection. BJU Int, 2008. 101: 203.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17888043/

510.Vignozzi, L., et al. Effect of chronic tadalafil administration on penile hypoxia induced by cavernous neurotomy in the rat. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 419.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16681467/

511.Brock, G., et al. Efficacy of Continuous Dosing of Tadalafil Once Daily vs Tadalafil On Demand in Clinical Subgroups of Men With Erectile Dysfunction: A Descriptive Comparison Using the Integrated Tadalafil Databases. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 860.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27114197/

512.Porst, H., et al. Tadalafil once daily in men with erectile dysfunction: an integrated analysis of data obtained from 1913 patients from six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical studies. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 455.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24119319/

513.Buvat, J., et al. Continuation and effectiveness of tadalafil once daily during a 6-month observational study in erectile dysfunction: the EDATE study. Int J Clin Pract, 2014. 68: 1087.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25123817/

514.Kloner, R.A., et al. Cardiovascular Safety of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors After Nearly 2 Decades on the Market. Sex Med Rev, 2018. 6: 583.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29960874/

515.Swearingen, D., et al. Hemodynamic effect of avanafil and glyceryl trinitrate coadministration. Drugs Context, 2013. 2013: 212248.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24432037/

516.Gur, S., et al. Update on drug interactions with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction or pulmonary hypertension. Curr Drug Metab, 2013. 14: 265.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23140258/

517.Corona, G., et al. The use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors with concomitant medications.
J Endocrinol Invest, 2008. 31: 799.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18997493/

518.Kloner, R.A. Novel phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: assessing hemodynamic effects and safety parameters. Clin Cardiol, 2004. 27: I20.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15115192/

519.Pickering, T.G., et al. Sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction in men receiving multiple antihypertensive agents: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Hypertens, 2004. 17: 1135.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15607620/

520.Satake, N., et al. Potentiating effect of nicorandil, an antianginal agent, on relaxation induced by isoproterenol in isolated rat aorta: involvement of cyclic GMP-inhibitable cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 1995. 25: 489.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7769818/

521.Adamou, C., et al. The hemodynamic interactions of combination therapy with α-blockers and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors compared to monotherapy with α-blockers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol, 2020. 52: 1407.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32240459/

522.McCullough, A.R., et al. Achieving treatment optimization with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in patients with erectile dysfunction. Urology, 2002. 60: 28.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12414331/

523.Hatzichristou, D., et al. Sildenafil failures may be due to inadequate patient instructions and follow-up: a study on 100 non-responders. Eur Urol, 2005. 47: 518.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15774252/

524.Forgue, S.T., et al. Tadalafil pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2006. 61: 280.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16487221/

525.Nichols, D.J., et al. Pharmacokinetics of sildenafil after single oral doses in healthy male subjects: absolute bioavailability, food effects and dose proportionality. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2002. 53 Suppl 1: 5S.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11879254/

526.Rosen, R.C., et al. Determining the earliest time within 30 minutes to erectogenic effect after tadalafil 10 and 20 mg: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, at-home study. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 193.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422974/

527.Montorsi, F., et al. Earliest time to onset of action leading to successful intercourse with vardenafil determined in an at-home setting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 168.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422971/

528.Padma-Nathan, H., et al. Minimal time to successful intercourse after sildenafil citrate: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology, 2003. 62: 400.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12946731/

529.Rajagopalan, P., et al. Effect of high-fat breakfast and moderate-fat evening meal on the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil, an oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. J Clin Pharmacol, 2003. 43: 260.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12638394/

530.Gruenwald, I., et al. Positive effect of counseling and dose adjustment in patients with erectile dysfunction who failed treatment with sildenafil. Eur Urol, 2006. 50: 134.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16527391/

531.Hatzimouratidis, K., et al. Treatment strategy for “non-responders” to tadalafil and vardenafil: a real-life study. Eur Urol, 2006. 50: 126.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16564127/

532.Park, N.C., et al. Treatment Strategy for Non-Responders to PDE5 Inhibitors. World J Mens Health, 2013. 31: 31.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23658863/

533.Porst, H., et al. SOP conservative (medical and mechanical) treatment of erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 130.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23343170/

534.Mostafa, T., et al. Effect of Genetic Polymorphism on the Response to PDE5 Inhibitors in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and a Critical Appraisal. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 573.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32636154/

535.Marchal Escalona, C., et al. PDE5A Polymorphisms Influence on Sildenafil Treatment Success.
J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1104.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27235284

536.Azevedo, A.M.M., et al. Relationship between asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitrite and genetic polymorphisms: Impact on erectile dysfunction therapy. Nitric Oxide, 2017. 71: 44.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29074293/

537.Lacchini, R., et al. Influence of arginase polymorphisms and arginase levels/activity on the response to erectile dysfunction therapy with sildenafil. Pharmacogenomics J, 2018. 18: 238.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28374859/

538.Mulhall, J.P., et al. The 2018 Revision to the Process of Care Model for Management of Erectile Dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1434.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30057278/

539.Corona, G., et al. First-generation phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors dropout: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Andrology, 2016. 4: 1002.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27636710/

540.Corona, G., et al. Testosterone supplementation and sexual function: a meta-analysis study. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1577.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24697970/

541.Eardley, I., et al. Factors associated with preference for sildenafil citrate and tadalafil for treating erectile dysfunction in men naive to phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor therapy: post hoc analysis of data from a multicentre, randomized, open-label, crossover study. BJU Int, 2007. 100: 122.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17552960/

542.Hatzimouratidis, K., et al. Psychosocial outcomes after initial treatment of erectile dysfunction with tadalafil once daily, tadalafil on demand or sildenafil citrate on demand: results from a randomized, open-label study. Int J Impot Res, 2014. 26: 223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24784894/

543.Liao, X., et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction in diabetic men: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World J Urol, 2019. 37: 1061.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30523399/

544.Mykoniatis, I., et al. Assessment of Combination Therapies vs Monotherapy for Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open, 2021. 4: e2036337.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33599772/

545.Cui, H., et al. Efficacy and safety of long-term tadalafil 5 mg once daily combined with sildenafil 50 mg as needed at the early stage of treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction. Andrologia, 2015. 47: 20.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24387078/

546.Anaissie, J., et al. Clinical use of alprostadil topical cream in patients with erectile dysfunction: a review. Res Rep Urol, 2016. 8: 123.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27536559/

547.Rooney, M., et al. Long-term, multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of topical alprostadil cream in male patients with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 520.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19138370/

548.Padma-Nathan, H., et al. An integrated analysis of alprostadil topical cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in 1732 patients. Urology, 2006. 68: 386.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16904458/

549.Cai, T., et al. The intra-meatal application of alprostadil cream (Vitaros®) improves drug efficacy and patient’s satisfaction: results from a randomized, two-administration route, cross-over clinical trial. Int J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30323234/

550.Padma-Nathan, H., et al. Treatment of men with erectile dysfunction with transurethral alprostadil. Medicated Urethral System for Erection (MUSE) Study Group. N Engl J Med, 1997. 336: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8970933/

551.Costa, P., et al. Intraurethral alprostadil for erectile dysfunction: a review of the literature. Drugs, 2012. 72: 2243.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23170913/

552.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Analysis of the consistency of intraurethral prostaglandin E(1) (MUSE) during at-home use. Urology, 2001. 58: 262.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11489714/

553.Shabsigh, R., et al. Intracavernous alprostadil alfadex is more efficacious, better tolerated, and preferred over intraurethral alprostadil plus optional actis: a comparative, randomized, crossover, multicenter study. Urology, 2000. 55: 109.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10654905/

554.Chung, E., et al. Evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction rate after low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: an Australian first open-label single-arm prospective clinical trial. BJU international, 2015. 5: 46.

555.Gruenwald, I., et al. Shockwave treatment of erectile dysfunction. Ther Adv Urol, 2013. 5: 95.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23554844/

556.Gruenwald, I., et al. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy--a novel effective treatment for erectile dysfunction in severe ED patients who respond poorly to PDE5 inhibitor therapy. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 259.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22008059/

557.Olsen, A.B., et al. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile dysfunction? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scandinavian
J Urol, 2015. 49: 329.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25470423/

558.Vardi, Y., et al. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile function? A 6-month follow-up pilot study in patients with organic erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol, 2010. 58: 243.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20451317/

559.Kitrey, N.D., et al. Penile Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment is Able to Shift PDE5i Nonresponders to Responders: A Double-Blind, Sham Controlled Study. J Urol, 2016. 195: 1550.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26694904/

560.Hisasue, S., et al. Impact of aging and comorbidity on the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction. Int J Urol, 2016. 23: 80.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26501992/

561.Fode, M., et al. Low-intensity shockwave therapy for erectile dysfunction: is the evidence strong enough? Nat Rev Urol, 2017. 14: 593.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28741629/

562.Sokolakis, I., et al. Clinical studies on low intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Int J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 177.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30664671/

563.Porst, H. Review of the Current Status of Low Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (Li-ESWT) in Erectile Dysfunction (ED), Peyronie’s Disease (PD), and Sexual Rehabilitation After Radical Prostatectomy With Special Focus on Technical Aspects of the Different Marketed ESWT Devices Including Personal Experiences in 350 Patients. Sex Med Rev, 2021. 9: 93.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32499189/

564.Kalyvianakis, D., et al. Low-intensity shockwave therapy (LiST) for erectile dysfunction: a randomized clinical trial assessing the impact of energy flux density (EFD) and frequency of sessions. Int J Impot Res, 2020. 32: 329.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31474753/

565.Kalyvianakis, D., et al. Low-Intensity Shockwave Therapy Improves Hemodynamic Parameters in Patients With Vasculogenic Erectile Dysfunction: A Triplex Ultrasonography-Based Sham-Controlled Trial. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 891.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28673433/

566.Bechara, A., et al. Twelve-Month Efficacy and Safety of Low-Intensity Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction in Patients Who Do Not Respond to Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors. Sex Med, 2016. 4: e225.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27444215/

567.Vinay, J., et al. Penile low intensity shock wave treatment for PDE5I refractory erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind sham-controlled clinical trial. World J Urol, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32696128/

568.Lu, Z., et al. Low-intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Improves Erectile Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol, 2016.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27321373/

569.Chung, E., et al. Evaluation of Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction Rate Following Low Intensity Shock Wave Therapy in Men With Erectile Dysfunction: A Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up on a Prospective Open-Label Single-Arm Clinical Study. Sex Med, 2021. 9: 100384.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34126432/

570.Baccaglini, W., et al. The Role of the Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Penile Rehabilitation After Radical Prostatectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 688.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32007430/

571.Ladegaard, P.B.J., et al. Erectile Dysfunction A Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Effect of Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (LI-ESWT) in Men With Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy. Sex Med, 2021. 9: 100338.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33789173/

572.Fojecki, G.L., et al. Effect of Low-Energy Linear Shockwave Therapy on Erectile Dysfunction-A Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27938990/

573.Campbell, J.D., et al. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that assess the efficacy of low-intensity shockwave therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Ther Adv Urol, 2019.
11: 1756287219838364.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30956690/

574.Dewitte, M., et al. A Psychosocial Approach to Erectile Dysfunction: Position Statements from the European Society of Sexual Medicine (ESSM). Sexual Medicine, 2021. 9: 100434.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34626919/

575.Bossio, J.A., et al. Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy for Men With Situational Erectile Dysfunction: A Mixed-Methods Feasibility Analysis and Pilot Study. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1478.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30297094/

576.Tajar, A., et al. Characteristics of androgen deficiency in late-onset hypogonadism: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012. 97: 1508.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22419720/

577.Rizk, P.J., et al. Testosterone therapy improves erectile function and libido in hypogonadal men. Curr Opin Urol, 2017. 27: 511.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28816715/

578.Levine, L.A., et al. Vacuum constriction and external erection devices in erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am, 2001. 28: 335.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11402585/

579.Yuan, J., et al. Vacuum therapy in erectile dysfunction--science and clinical evidence. Int J Impot Res, 2010. 22: 211.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20410903/

580.Cookson, M.S., et al. Long-term results with vacuum constriction device. J Urol, 1993. 149: 290.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8426404/

581.Lewis, R.W., et al. External vacuum therapy for erectile dysfunction: use and results. World J Urol, 1997. 15: 78.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9066099/

582.Trost, L.W., et al. External Mechanical Devices and Vascular Surgery for Erectile Dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1579.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27770853/

583.Pajovic, B., et al. Vacuum erection device in treatment of organic erectile dysfunction and penile vascular differences between patients with DM type I and DM type II. Aging Male, 2017. 20: 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27690728/

584.Eardley, I., et al. Pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 524.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092451/

585.Coombs, P.G., et al. A review of outcomes of an intracavernosal injection therapy programme. BJU Int, 2012. 110: 1787.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22564343/

586.Kattan, S., et al. Double-blind, cross-over study comparing prostaglandin E1 and papaverine in patients with vasculogenic impotence. Urology, 1991. 37: 516.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2038782/

587.Lakin, M.M., et al. Intracavernous injection therapy: analysis of results and complications. J Urol, 1990. 143: 1138.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2342174/

588.Moriel, E.Z., et al. Sodium bicarbonate alleviates penile pain induced by intracavernous injections for erectile dysfunction. J Urol, 1993. 149: 1299.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8386779/

589.Gupta, R., et al. Predictors of success and risk factors for attrition in the use of intracavernous injection. J Urol, 1997. 157: 1681.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9112505/

590.Sundaram, C.P., et al. Long-term follow-up of patients receiving injection therapy for erectile dysfunction. Urology, 1997. 49: 932.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9187703/

591.Seyam, R., et al. A prospective randomized study to optimize the dosage of trimix ingredients and compare its efficacy and safety with prostaglandin E1. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 346.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15772683/

592.Vardi, Y., et al. Logistic regression and survival analysis of 450 impotent patients treated with injection therapy: long-term dropout parameters. J Urol, 2000. 163: 467.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10647656/

593.Porst, H., et al. Intracavernous Alprostadil Alfadex--an effective and well tolerated treatment for erectile dysfunction. Results of a long-term European study. Int J Impot Res, 1998. 10: 225.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9884918/

594.Duncan, C., et al. Erectile dysfunction: a global review of intracavernosal injectables. World J Urol, 2019. 37: 1007.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30895359/

595.Buvat, J., et al. Double-blind multicenter study comparing alprostadil alpha-cyclodextrin with moxisylyte chlorhydrate in patients with chronic erectile dysfunction. J Urol, 1998. 159: 116.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9400450/

596.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Intracavernosal forskolin: role in management of vasculogenic impotence resistant to standard 3-agent pharmacotherapy. J Urol, 1997. 158: 1752.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9334594/

597.Bechara, A., et al. Comparative study of papaverine plus phentolamine versus prostaglandin E1 in erectile dysfunction. J Urol, 1997. 157: 2132.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9146599/

598.McMahon CG, et al. A comparison of the response to the intracavernosal injection of papaverine and phentolamine, prostaglandin E1 and a combination of all three agents in the management of impotence. J Urol, 1999. 162.

https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/475407

599.Dinsmore, W.W., et al. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/phentolamine for intracavernosal injection in erectile dysfunction. BJU Int, 2008. 102: 933.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18485029/

600.McMahon, C.G., et al. Treatment of intracorporeal injection nonresponse with sildenafil alone or in combination with triple agent intracorporeal injection therapy. J Urol, 1999. 162: 1992.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10569554/

601.Kim, J.H., et al. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 81.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26888355/

602.Patel, D.P., et al. Emerging Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction: a Review of Novel, Non-surgical Options. Curr Urol Rep, 2019. 20: 44.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31214818/

603.Matz, E.L., et al. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev, 2019. 7: 321.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29631980/

604.Yu, B., et al. Advances in Gene Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: Promises and Challenges. Curr Gene Ther, 2018. 18: 351.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30289066/

605.Scott, S., et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Critical Review of Literature and Global Trends in Platelet-Rich Plasma Clinics. Sex Med Rev, 2019. 7: 306.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30833169/

606.Epifanova, M.V., et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy for Male Sexual Dysfunction: Myth or Reality? Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30898594/

607.Lokeshwar, S.D., et al. A Systematic Review of Human Trials Using Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 122.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31640911/

608.Towe, M., et al. The use of combination regenerative therapies for erectile dysfunction: rationale and current status. Int J Impot Res, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34253869/

609.Epifanova M, et al. Combined therapy for treating erectile dysfunction: First results on the use of low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy and platelet-rich plasma. BJU Int, 2019. 123: (Suppl. 3) 25.

https://bjui-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bju.14730

610.Banno JJ, et al. The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a supplemental therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED): Initial outcomes. J Sex Med, 2017. 14.

https://www.jsm.jsexmed.org/article/S1743-6095(16)31017-7/fulltext

611.Chalyj, M.E., et al. [The effectiveness of intracavernous autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of erectile dysfunction]. Urologiia, 2015: 76.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26665770/

612.Ruffo, A., et al. Effectiveness and safety of Platelet rich Plasma (PrP) cavernosal injections plus external shock wave treatment for penile erectile dysfunction: First results from a prospective, randomized, controlled, interventional study. Eur Urol Supplements, 2019. 18: e1622.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331786056

613.Matz, E.L., et al. Safety and feasibility of platelet rich fibrin matrix injections for treatment of common urologic conditions. Investig Clin Urol, 2018. 59: 61.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29333517/

614.Alkhayal, S., et al. PO-01-091 Platelet rich plasma penile rejuvenation as a treatment for erectile dysfunction: An update. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: S71.

https://www.pollockclinics.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/8-pollock-jl-sex-med-2019-platelet-rich-plasma-penile.pdf

615.Poulios, E., et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Erectile Function: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 926.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33906807/

616.Oudelaar, B.W., et al. Concentrations of Blood Components in Commercial Platelet-Rich Plasma Separation Systems: A Review of the Literature. Am J Sports Med, 2019. 47: 479.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29337592/

617.Alkandari, M.H., et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Erectile Dysfunction and Peyronie’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Evidence. Sex Med Rev, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34219010/

618.Mazzucco, L., et al. Not every PRP-gel is born equal. Evaluation of growth factor availability for tissues through four PRP-gel preparations: Fibrinet, RegenPRP-Kit, Plateltex and one manual procedure. Vox Sang, 2009. 97: 110.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19392780/

619.Lee, H.W., et al. Ginseng for Erectile Dysfunction: A Cochrane Systematic Review. World J Mens Health, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34169686/

620.Xu, J., et al. Association between folic acid, homocysteine, vitamin B12 and erectile dysfunction-A cross-sectional study. Andrologia, 2021. 53: e14234.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34498733/

621.Jo, J.K., et al. Effect of Starting Penile Rehabilitation with Sildenafil Immediately after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function Recovery: A Prospective Randomized Trial. J Urol, 2018. 199: 1600.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29307683/

622.Montorsi, F., et al. Effect of nightly versus on-demand vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in men following bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol, 2008. 54: 924.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18640769/

623.Montorsi, F., et al. Effects of tadalafil treatment on erectile function recovery following bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: a randomised placebo-controlled study (REACTT). Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 587.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24169081/

624.Montorsi, F., et al. Exploratory Decision-Tree Modeling of Data from the Randomized REACTT Trial of Tadalafil Versus Placebo to Predict Recovery of Erectile Function After Bilateral Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy. Eur Urol, 2016. 70: 529.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26947602/

625.Montorsi, F., et al. Efficacy of sildenafil citrate in men with erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy: a systematic review of clinical data. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 658.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422824/

626.Schwartz, E.J., et al. Sildenafil preserves intracorporeal smooth muscle after radical retropubic prostatectomy. J Urol, 2004. 171: 771.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14713808/

627.Padma-Nathan, H., et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of postoperative nightly sildenafil citrate for the prevention of erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Int J Impot Res, 2008. 20: 479.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18650827/

628.Kim, D.J., et al. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of on-Demand vs. nightly sildenafil citrate as assessed by Rigiscan and the international index of erectile function. Andrology, 2016. 4: 27.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26663669/

629.Montorsi, F., et al. Tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following bilateral nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. J Urol, 2004. 172: 1036.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15311032/

630.Patel, H.R., et al. Effects of tadalafil treatment after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: quality of life, psychosocial outcomes, and treatment satisfaction results from a randomized, placebo-controlled phase IV study. BMC Urol, 2015. 15: 31.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25879460/

631.Brock, G., et al. Safety and efficacy of vardenafil for the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction after radical retropubic prostatectomy. J Urol, 2003. 170: 1278.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14501741/

632.Nehra, A., et al. Vardenafil improved patient satisfaction with erectile hardness, orgasmic function and sexual experience in men with erectile dysfunction following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. J Urol, 2005. 173: 2067.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15879836/

633.Philippou, Y.A., et al. Penile rehabilitation for postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018. 10: Cd012414.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30352488/

634.Montorsi, F., et al. Recovery of spontaneous erectile function after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy with and without early intracavernous injections of alprostadil: results of a prospective, randomized trial. J Urol, 1997. 158: 1408.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9302132/

635.Raina, R., et al. The early use of transurethral alprostadil after radical prostatectomy potentially facilitates an earlier return of erectile function and successful sexual activity. BJU Int, 2007. 100: 1317.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17850385/

636.Raina, R., et al. Early use of vacuum constriction device following radical prostatectomy facilitates early sexual activity and potentially earlier return of erectile function. Int J Impot Res, 2006. 18: 77.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16107868/

637.Nason, G.J., et al. Efficacy of vacuum erectile devices (VEDs) after radical prostatectomy: the initial Irish experience of a dedicated VED clinic. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 205.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27225711/

638.Hellstrom, W.J., et al. Implants, mechanical devices, and vascular surgery for erectile dysfunction.
J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 501.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092450/

639.Tal, R., et al. Penile implant utilization following treatment for prostate cancer: analysis of the SEER-Medicare database. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 1797.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21426495/

640.Sridhar, A.N., et al. Recovery of Baseline Erectile Function in Men Following Radical Prostatectomy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Analysis Using Validated Measures. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 435.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26944466/

641.Qin, F., et al. The Early Use of Vacuum Therapy for Penile Rehabilitation After Radical Prostatectomy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Mens Health, 2018. 12: 2136.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30182794/

642.Sari Motlagh, R., et al. Penile Rehabilitation Strategy after Nerve Sparing Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. J Urol, 2021. 205: 1018.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33443457/

643.Feng, D., et al. Generating comprehensive comparative evidence on various interventions for penile rehabilitation in patients with erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Transl Androl Urol, 2021. 10: 109.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33532301/

644.Wong, C., et al. A Systematic Review of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatectomy and Recommendations to Guide Further Research. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 737.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32029399/

645.Sohn, M., et al. Standard operating procedures for vascular surgery in erectile dysfunction: revascularization and venous procedures. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 172.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23171072/

646.Antonini, G., et al. Minimally invasive infrapubic inflatable penile prosthesis implant for erectile dysfunction: Evaluation of efficacy, satisfaction profile and complications. Int J Impot Res. 2016. 28: 4.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26657316/

647.Bajic, P., et al. Etiology of Erectile Dysfunction and Duration of Symptoms in Patients Undergoing Penile Prosthesis: A Systematic Review. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 333.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31278064/

648.Muneer, A., et al. UK practice for penile prosthesis surgery: baseline analysis of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) Penile Prosthesis Audit. BJU Int, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32869902/

649.Martinez-Salamanca, J.I., et al. Penile prosthesis surgery in patients with corporal fibrosis: a state of the art review. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 1880.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21492405/

650.Montague, D.K. Penile prosthesis implantation in the era of medical treatment for erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am, 2011. 38: 217.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21621088/

651.Casabe, A.R., et al. Satisfaction assessment with malleable prosthetic implant of Spectra (AMS) and Genesis (Coloplast) models. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 228.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27557609/

652.Mulcahy, J.J., et al. The penile implant for erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 98.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422990/

653.Montague, D.K., et al. Penile prosthesis implantation. Urol Clin North Am, 2001. 28: 355.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11402587/

654.Palmisano, F., et al. Comparison of Infrapubic vs Penoscrotal Approaches for 3-Piece Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Placement: Do We Have a Winner? Sex Med Rev, 2018. 6: 631.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29730314/

655.Bettocchi, C., et al. Patient and partner satisfaction after AMS inflatable penile prosthesis implant.
J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 304.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19758282/

656.Chung, E., et al. Penile prosthesis implantation for the treatment for male erectile dysfunction: clinical outcomes and lessons learnt after 955 procedures. World J Urol, 2013. 31: 591.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22457032/

657.Falcone, M., et al. Prospective analysis of the surgical outcomes and patients’ satisfaction rate after the AMS Spectra penile prosthesis implantation. Urology, 2013. 82: 373.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23791218/

658.Henry, G.D., et al. A survey of patients with inflatable penile prostheses: assessment of timing and frequency of intercourse and analysis of implant durability. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 1715.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22568579/

659.Kim, D.S., et al. AMS 700CX/CXM inflatable penile prosthesis has high mechanical reliability at long-term follow-up. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2602.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20384938/

660.Lux, M., et al. Outcomes and satisfaction rates for the redesigned 2-piece penile prosthesis. J Urol, 2007. 177: 262.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17162061/

661.Natali, A., et al. Penile implantation in Europe: successes and complications with 253 implants in Italy and Germany. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1503.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18410306/

662.Otero, J.R., et al. Comparison of the patient and partner satisfaction with 700CX and Titan penile prostheses. Asian J Androl, 2017. 19: 321.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26806085/

663.Chierigo, F., et al. Long-Term Follow-Up After Penile Prosthesis Implantation-Survival and Quality of Life Outcomes. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1827.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31501062/

664.Lee, D., et al. Simultaneous penile prosthesis and male sling/artificial urinary sphincter. Asian
J Androl, 2013. 15: 10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23202702/

665.Lee, D., et al. Combination surgery for erectile dysfunction and male incontinence. Curr Urol Rep, 2011. 12: 461.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21956147/

666.Segal, R.L., et al. Combined inflatable penile prosthesis-artificial urinary sphincter implantation: no increased risk of adverse events compared to single or staged device implantation. J Urol, 2013. 190: 2183.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23831315/

667.Pisano, F., et al. The importance of psychosexual counselling in the re-establishment of organic and erotic functions after penile prosthesis implantation. Int J Impot Res, 2015. 27: 197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26268774/

668.Carson, C.C., et al. Efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction outcomes of the AMS 700CX inflatable penile prosthesis: results of a long-term multicenter study. AMS 700CX Study Group. J Urol, 2000. 164: 376.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10893589/

669.Wilson, S.K., et al. Comparison of mechanical reliability of original and enhanced Mentor Alpha I penile prosthesis. J Urol, 1999. 162: 715.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10458350/

670.Mandava, S.H., et al. Infection retardant coated inflatable penile prostheses decrease the incidence of infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Urol, 2012. 188: 1855.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22999690/

671.Trost, L.W., et al. Long-term outcomes of penile prostheses for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Expert Rev Med Devices, 2013. 10: 353.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23668707/

672.Chung, E., et al. A Worldwide Survey on Peyronie’s Disease Surgical Practice Patterns Among Surgeons. The J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 568.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29550462/

673.Mahon, J., et al. Infectious Adverse Events Following the Placement of a Penile Prosthesis: A Systematic Review. Sexual medicine reviews, 2019: S2050.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31519461/

674.Carson, C.C., 3rd, et al. Long-term infection outcomes after original antibiotic impregnated inflatable penile prosthesis implants: up to 7.7 years of followup. J Urol, 2011. 185: 614.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21168870/

675.Darouiche, R.O., et al. North American consensus document on infection of penile prostheses. Urology, 2013. 82: 937.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23958508/

676.Serefoglu, E.C., et al. Long-term revision rate due to infection in hydrophilic-coated inflatable penile prostheses: 11-year follow-up. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2182.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22759917/

677.Zargaroff, S., et al. National trends in the treatment of penile prosthesis infections by explantation alone vs. immediate salvage and reimplantation. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1078.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24628707/

678.Pineda, M., et al. Penile Prosthesis Infections-A Review of Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment. Sex Med Rev, 2016. 4: 389.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27872031/

679.Dropkin, B.M., et al. Antibiotics and Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Insertion: A Literature Review. Sex Med Rev, 2021. 9: 174.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32631811/

680.Bode, L.G., et al. Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.
N Engl J Med, 2010. 362: 9.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20054045/

681.Christodoulidou, M., et al. Infection of Penile Prostheses in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Surg Infect (Larchmt), 2016. 17: 2.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26426099/

682.Hatzimouratidis, K., et al. EAU guidelines on penile curvature. Eur Urol, 2012. 62: 543.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22658761/

683.Henry, G.D., et al. An outcomes analysis of over 200 revision surgeries for penile prosthesis implantation: a multicenter study. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22082149/

684.Levine, L.A., et al. Standard operating procedures for Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 230.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23211057/

685.Lipsky, M.J., et al. Diabetes Is a Risk Factor for Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Infection: Analysis of a Large Statewide Database. Sex Med, 2019. 7: 35.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30674445/

686.Canguven, O., et al. Is Hba1c level of diabetic patients associated with penile prosthesis implantation infections? Aging Male, 2018: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29523037/

687.Towe, M., et al. Impact of Antimicrobial Dipping Solutions on Postoperative Infection Rates in Patients With Diabetes Undergoing Primary Insertion of a Coloplast Titan Inflatable Penile Prosthesis. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 2077.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32807707/

688.Cihan, A., et al. The relationship between premature ejaculation and hyperthyroidism. J Urol, 2009. 181: 1273.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19185321/

689.Mulcahy, J.J. Long-term experience with salvage of infected penile implants. J Urol, 2000. 163: 481.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10647660/

690.Gross, M.S., et al. The Malleable Implant Salvage Technique: Infection Outcomes after Mulcahy Salvage Procedure and Replacement of Infected Inflatable Penile Prosthesis with Malleable Prosthesis. J Urol, 2016. 195: 694.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26343986/

691.Habous, M., et al. Conservative Therapy is an Effective Option in Patients With Localized Infection After Penile Implant Surgery. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 972.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27162191/

692.Levine, L.A., et al. Penile Prosthesis Surgery: Current Recommendations From the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 489.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27045255/

693.Scherzer, N.D., et al. Penile Prosthesis Complications: Planning, Prevention, and Decision Making. Sexual medicine reviews, 2019. 7: 349.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30033128/

694.Hebert, K., et al. Acute Post-Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Glans Ischemia: Review of Incidence, Pathophysiology, and Management Recommendations. The J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30509507/

695.Akakpo, W., et al. Critical Analysis of Satisfaction Assessment After Penile Prosthesis Surgery. Sex Med Rev, 2017. 5: 244.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28143706/

696.Atri, E., et al. A Comparison Between AMS 700 and Coloplast Titan: A Systematic Literature Review. Cureus, 2020. 12: e11350.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33304685/

697.Althof, S.E., et al. Contemporary Management of Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation. Urology, 2016. 93: 9.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26921646/

698.Gao, J., et al. The impact of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and erectile function on anxiety and depression in the four types of premature ejaculation: A large cross-sectional study in a chinese population. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 521.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24274171/

699.Kempeneers, P., et al. Sexual Cognitions, Trait Anxiety, Sexual Anxiety, and Distress in Men With Different Subtypes of Premature Ejaculation and in Their Partners. J Sex Marital Ther, 2018. 44: 319.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29161211/

700.Rajkumar, R.P., et al. The association of anxiety with the subtypes of premature ejaculation: A chart review. rim Care Companion CNS Disord, 2014. 16: 10.4088.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25664211/

701.Ventus, D., et al. No Evidence for Long-Term Causal Associations Between Symptoms of Premature Ejaculation and Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Sexual Distress in a Large, Population-Based Longitudinal Sample. J Sex Res, 2017. 54: 264.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27982691/

702.Yang, Y., et al. Correlations and stratification analysis between premature ejaculation and psychological disorders. Andrologia, 2019: e13315.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31090231/

703.Wiggins, A., et al. The Penile Sensitivity Ratio: A Novel Application of Biothesiometry to Assess Changes in Penile Sensitivity. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 447.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30773499/

704.Chen, X., et al. Penile sensory thresholds in subtypes of premature ejaculation: implications of comorbid erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl, 2018. 20: 330.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29405168/

705.Guo, L., et al. Significance of penile hypersensitivity in premature ejaculation. Sci Rep, 2017. 7: 10441.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28874780/

706.Xia, J.D., et al. A reassessment of penile sensory pathways and effects of prilocaine-lidocaine cream in primary premature ejaculation. Int J Impot Res, 2014. 26: 186.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24572995/

707.Salonia, A., et al. Quantitative sensory testing of peripheral thresholds in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a case-controlled study. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 1755.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19453912/

708.Xin, Z.C., et al. Somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with primary premature ejaculation.
J Urol, 1997. 158: 451.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9224321/

709.Xin, Z.C., et al. Penile sensitivity in patients with primary premature ejaculation. J Urol, 1996. 156: 979.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8709378/

710.Khan, H.L., et al. Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotypes and trinucleotide repeats of androgen receptor exert a combinatorial effect on hormonal milieu in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Andrology, 2018. 6: 916.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30019487/

711.Roaiah, M.F., et al. Study of the prevalence of 5 HT-2C receptor gene polymorphisms in Egyptian patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Andrologia, 2018. 50.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28730747/

712.Janssen, P.K., et al. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation. Asian J Androl, 2014. 16: 607.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24799636/

713.Janssen, P.K., et al. The 5-HT(1)A receptor C(1019)G polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2014. 121: 184.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24440118/

714.Hsieh, J.T., et al. The activation of peripheral 5-HT1A receptors can inhibit seminal vesicle contraction: an in vivo animal study. Urology, 2011. 78: 376.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21676447/

715.Janssen, P.K., et al. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 276.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19170855/

716.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part I--validity of DSM-IV-TR. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 682.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16839325/

717.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part II--proposals for DSM-V and ICD-11. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 693.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16839326/

718.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Method and design of drug treatment research of subjective premature ejaculation in men differs from that of lifelong premature ejaculation in males: proposal for a new objective measure (part 1). Int J Impot Res, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30647430/

719.Waldinger, M.D. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation. Transl Androl Urol, 2016.
5: 424.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652215/

720.Carani, C., et al. Multicenter study on the prevalence of sexual symptoms in male hypo- and hyperthyroid patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005. 90: 6472.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16204360/

721.Corona, G., et al. Psycho-biological correlates of rapid ejaculation in patients attending an andrologic unit for sexual dysfunctions. Eur Urol, 2004. 46: 615.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15474272/

722.McMahon, C.G., et al. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 434.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652216/

723.Symonds, T., et al. Further evidence of the reliability and validity of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool. Int J Impot Res, 2007. 19: 521.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17568761/

724.Verze, P., et al. Premature Ejaculation Among Italian Men: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates From an Observational, Non-Interventional, Cross-Sectional, Epidemiological Study (IPER). Sexual medicine, 2018. 6: 193.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29803639/

725.Sihotang, R.C., et al. Premature ejaculation in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32393845/

726.Richardson, D., et al. Premature ejaculation--does country of origin tell us anything about etiology? J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 508.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422845/

727.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Familial occurrence of primary premature ejaculation. Psychiatr Genet, 1998. 8: 37.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9564687/

728.Janssen, P.K., et al. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies. PLoS One, 2014. 9: e88031.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24595335/

729.Jern, P., et al. A reassessment of the possible effects of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphism 5-HTTLPR on premature ejaculation. Arch Sex Behav, 2013. 42: 45.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22810993/

730.Jern, P., et al. Preliminary Evidence for an Association Between Variants of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene and Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 1558.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29198511/

731.Screponi, E., et al. Prevalence of chronic prostatitis in men with premature ejaculation. Urology, 2001. 58: 198.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11489699/

732.Shamloul, R., et al. Chronic prostatitis in premature ejaculation: a cohort study in 153 men. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 150.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16409229/

733.Chierigo, F., et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and depressive symptoms among patients presenting for distressing early ejaculation. Int J Impot Res, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31024115/

734.Culha, M.G., et al. Frequency of etiological factors among patients with acquired premature ejaculation: prospective, observational, single-center study. Int J Impot Res, 2019: 10.1038/s41443.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31477853/

735.Corona, G., et al. Hypoprolactinemia: a new clinical syndrome in patients with sexual dysfunction.
J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 1457.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19210705/

736.Corona, G., et al. Premature and delayed ejaculation: two ends of a single continuum influenced by hormonal milieu. Int J Androl, 2011. 34: 41.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20345874/

737.Kadihasanoglu, M., et al. Relation between blood vitamin B12 levels with premature ejaculation: case-control study. Andrologia, 2017. 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27681841/

738.Abd El Aal, A.M., et al. Serum vitamin D level may be a novel potential risk factor for premature ejaculation: a comparative study. Int Urol Nephrol, 2018. 50: 1975.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30155606/

739.Majzoub, A., et al. Premature ejaculation in type II diabetes mellitus patients: Association with glycemic control. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 248.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27141454/

740.Bellastella, G., et al. Premature ejaculation is associated with glycemic control in Type 1 diabetes.
J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 93.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25424355/

741.Jeh, S.U., et al. Metabolic Syndrome Is an Independent Risk Factor for Acquired Premature Ejaculation. World J Mens Health, 2019. 37: 226.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30588783/

742.Bolat, D., et al. The relationship between acquired premature ejaculation and metabolic syndrome: a prospective, comparative study. Int J Impot Res, 2017. 29: 105.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28179637/

743.Ventus, D., et al. Lifestyle Factors and Premature Ejaculation: Are Physical Exercise, Alcohol Consumption, and Body Mass Index Associated With Premature Ejaculation and Comorbid Erectile Problems? J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1482.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27590186/

744.Dunn, K.M., et al. Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey. J Epidemiol Community Health, 1999. 53: 144.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10396490/

745.Xia, Y., et al. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 2016. 95: e4620.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27583879/

746.El-Nashaar, A., et al. Antibiotic treatment can delay ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation and chronic bacterial prostatitis. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17367444/

747.Rowland, D.L., et al. The psychological burden of premature ejaculation. J Urol, 2007. 177: 1065.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17296413/

748.Hanafy, S., et al. Prevalence of premature ejaculation and its impact on the quality of life: Results from a sample of Egyptian patients. Andrologia, 2019: e13298.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31025424/

749.Abdo, C.H. The impact of ejaculatory dysfunction upon the sufferer and his partner. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 460.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652218/

750.Burri, A., et al. Female partner’s perception of premature ejaculation and its impact on relationship breakups, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 2243.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24774717/

751.Byers, E.S., et al. Premature or rapid ejaculation: heterosexual couples’ perceptions of men’s ejaculatory behavior. Arch Sex Behav, 2003. 32: 261.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12807298/

752.Canat, L., et al. The relationship between female sexual function index domains and premature ejaculation. Int Urol Nephrol, 2018. 50: 633.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29497891/

753.Limoncin, E., et al. Premature ejaculation results in female sexual distress: standardization and validation of a new diagnostic tool for sexual distress. J Urol, 2013. 189: 1830.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23142691/

754.Solursh, D.S., et al. The human sexuality education of physicians in North American medical schools. Int J Impot Res, 2003. 15 Suppl 5: S41.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14551576/

755.Sotomayor, M. The burden of premature ejaculation: the patient’s perspective. J Sex Med, 2005.
2 Suppl 2: 110.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422797/

756.Parnham, A., et al. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation. Transl Androl Urol, 2016.
5: 416.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652214/

757.W.H.O. International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics (ICD- 11-MMS). The global standard for diagnostic health information. 2018.

https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases

758.Serefoglu, E.C., et al. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1423.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24848805/

759.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Differences between ICD-11 MMS and DSM-5 definition of premature ejaculation: a continuation of historical inadequacies and a source of serious misinterpretation by some European Regulatory Agencies (PART 2). Int J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 310.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30659291/

760.Shabsigh, R. Diagnosing premature ejaculation: a review. J Sex Med, 2006. 3 Suppl 4: 318.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16939476/

761.Sharlip, I. Diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation: the physician’s perspective. J Sex Med, 2005. 2 Suppl 2: 103.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422796/

762.Rowland, D.L., et al. Premature ejaculation: psychophysiological considerations in theory, research, and treatment. Annu Rev Sex Res, 1997. 8: 224.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10051895/

763.Althof, S.E. Prevalence, characteristics and implications of premature ejaculation/rapid ejaculation.
J Urol, 2006. 175: 842.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16469562/

764.Althof, S.E., et al. Patient reported outcomes used in the assessment of premature ejaculation. Urol Clin North Am, 2007. 34: 581.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17983898/

765.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Relevance of methodological design for the interpretation of efficacy of drug treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res, 2004. 16: 369.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14961051/

766.Waldinger, M.D. Towards evidence-based drug treatment research on premature ejaculation: a critical evaluation of methodology. Int J Impot Res, 2003. 15: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14562129/

767.Giuliano, F., et al. Premature ejaculation: results from a five-country European observational study. Eur Urol, 2008. 53: 1048.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17950985/

768.Patrick, D.L., et al. Premature ejaculation: an observational study of men and their partners. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 358.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422867/

769.Kempeneers, P., et al. Functional and psychological characteristics of belgian men with premature ejaculation and their partners. Arch Sex Behav, 2013. 42: 51.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22695640/

770.Rosen, R.C., et al. Correlates to the clinical diagnosis of premature ejaculation: results from a large observational study of men and their partners. J Urol, 2007. 177: 1059.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17296411/

771.Lee, W.K., et al. Can estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time be used interchangeably with stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for the diagnosis of lifelong premature ejaculation? Urology, 2015. 85: 375.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25623693/

772.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Geometric mean IELT and premature ejaculation: appropriate statistics to avoid overestimation of treatment efficacy. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 492.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18179458/

773.Symonds, T., et al. Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool. Eur Urol, 2007. 52: 565.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17275165/

774.Arafa, M., et al. Development and evaluation of the Arabic Index of Premature Ejaculation (AIPE).
J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 1750.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17970977/

775.Pryor, J.L., et al. Efficacy and tolerability of dapoxetine in treatment of premature ejaculation: an integrated analysis of two double-blind, randomised controlled trials. Lancet, 2006. 368: 929.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16962882/

776.Rosen, R.C., et al. Development and validation of four-item version of Male Sexual Health Questionnaire to assess ejaculatory dysfunction. Urology, 2007. 69: 805.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17482908/

777.Althof, S.E. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 475.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652220/

778.Cormio, L., et al. The Combination of Dapoxetine and Behavioral Treatment Provides Better Results than Dapoxetine Alone in the Management of Patients with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 1609.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26077706/

779.Pavone, C., et al. Premature ejaculation: Pharmacotherapy vs group psychotherapy alone or in combination. Arch Ital Urol Androl, 2017. 89: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28679182/

780.Melnik, T., et al. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2011: Cd008195.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21833964/

781.Porst, H., et al. Baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes for men with acquired or lifelong premature ejaculation with mild or no erectile dysfunction: integrated analyses of two phase 3 dapoxetine trials. The J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2231.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20412423/

782.EMA. Fortacin: Summary of product characteristics. 2014.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/human/EPAR/fortacin

783.Qin, Z., et al. Safety and efficacy characteristics of oral drugs in patients with premature ejaculation: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Impot Res, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31024113/

784.Jian, Z., et al. Pharmacotherapy of premature ejaculation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol, 2018. 50: 1939.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30225547/

785.Sridharan, K., et al. Pharmacological interventions for premature ejaculation: a mixed-treatment comparison network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 215.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29921893/

786.Castiglione, F., et al. Current Pharmacological Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol, 2016. 69: 904.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26749092/

787.Lue, T.F., et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in men. J Sex Med, 2004. 1: 6.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422979/

788.Rowland, D.L., et al. Attribution Patterns in Men Who Ejaculate Before They Desire: An Internet Survey. J Sex Marital Ther, 2016. 42: 462.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26168349/

789.Rowland, D.L., et al. Sex Differences in Attributions to Positive and Negative Sexual Scenarios in Men and Women With and Without Sexual Problems: Reconsidering Stereotypes. Arch Sex Behav, 2019. 48: 855.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29980902/

790.Gao, P., et al. Temperament-Character Traits and Attitudes Toward Premature Ejaculation in 4 Types of Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 72.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33339761/

791.Kaya, C., et al. Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised? J Sex Marital Ther, 2015. 41: 379.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24779361/

792.Jern, P., et al. Do women’s Relationship Satisfaction and Sexual Functioning Vary as a Function of Their Male Partners’ Premature Ejaculation Symptoms? J Sex Marital Ther, 2020. 46: 630.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32410522/

793.Rowland, D., et al. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2011. 8 Suppl 4: 342.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21699672/

794.Martin-Tuite, P., et al. Management Options for Premature Ejaculation and Delayed Ejaculation in Men. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 473.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31668585/

795.Ventus, D., et al. Vibrator-Assisted Start-Stop Exercises Improve Premature Ejaculation Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Sex Behav, 2020. 49: 1559.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31741252/

796.Stephenson, K.R., et al. Statistical Mediators of the Association Between Mindfulness and Sexual Experiences in Men with Impaired Sexual Function. Arch Sex Behav, 2020. 49: 1545.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31713094/

797.Optale, G., et al. Smartphone-Based Therapeutic Exercises for Men Affected by Premature Ejaculation: A Pilot Study. Sex Med, 2020. 8: 461.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32565067/

798.Modi, N.B., et al. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine hydrochloride, a novel agent for the treatment of premature ejaculation. J Clin Pharmacol, 2006. 46: 301.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16490806/

799.McMahon, C.G. Dapoxetine: a new option in the medical management of premature ejaculation. Ther Adv Urol, 2012. 4: 233.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23024705/

800.McMahon, C.G., et al. Efficacy and safety of dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: integrated analysis of results from five phase 3 trials. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 524.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21059176/

801.Li, J., et al. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis. Ann Saudi Med, 2018. 38: 366.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30284992/

802.McMahon, C., et al. The Asia-Pacific Flexible Dose Study of Dapoxetine and Patient Satisfaction in Premature Ejaculation Therapy: The PASSION Study. Sex Med, 2016. 4: e18.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26944775/

803.Yue, F.G., et al. Efficacy of Dapoxetine for the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials on Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency Time, Patient-reported Outcomes, and Adverse Events. Urology, 2015. 85: 856.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25817107/

804.Peng, J., et al. Safety and Effectiveness of Dapoxetine On Demand in Chinese Men With Premature Ejaculation: Results of a Multicenter, Prospective, Open-Label Phase IV Study. Sex Med, 2021.
9: 100296.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33529810/

805.Buvat, J., et al. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries. Eur Urol, 2009. 55: 957.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19195772/

806.Verze, P., et al. Comparison of Treatment of Emergent Adverse Events in Men With Premature Ejaculation Treated With Dapoxetine and Alternate Oral Treatments: Results From a Large Multinational Observational Trial. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 194.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26805941/

807.Kowey, P.R., et al. Cardiovascular safety profile of dapoxetine during the premarketing evaluation. Drugs R D, 2011. 11: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21410293/

808.EMA. Priligy - Article 29 referral - Annex III - Summary of Product Characteristics, Labelling and Package Leaflet. 2012.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/human/referrals/priligy

809.EMA. Priligy - Article 29 referral - Assessment Report for Priligy and Associated Names. 2012.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/referral/priligy-article-29-referral-assessment-report_en.pdf

810.Mirone, V., et al. Results from a prospective observational study of men with premature ejaculation treated with dapoxetine or alternative care: the PAUSE study. Eur Urol, 2014. 65: 733.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23993257/

811.Dresser, M.J., et al. Dapoxetine, a novel treatment for premature ejaculation, does not have pharmacokinetic interactions with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Int J Impot Res, 2006. 18: 104.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16307008/

812.McMahon, C.G., et al. Efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with premature ejaculation and concomitant erectile dysfunction treated with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor: randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III study. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 2312.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23845016/

813.Abu El-Hamd, M., et al. Comparison of the clinical efficacy and safety of the on-demand use of paroxetine, dapoxetine, sildenafil and combined dapoxetine with sildenafil in treatment of patients with premature ejaculation: A randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Andrologia, 2018. 50.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28497478/

814.Tuken, M., et al. Efficacy and safety of dapoxetine/sildenafil combination tablets in the treatment of men with premature ejaculation and concomitant erectile dysfunction-DAP-SPEED Study. Int
J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 92.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30705437/

815.Park, H.J., et al. Discontinuation of Dapoxetine Treatment in Patients With Premature Ejaculation: A 2-Year Prospective Observational Study. Sex Med, 2017. 5: e99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28395997/

816.Jern, P., et al. Antidepressant treatment of premature ejaculation: discontinuation rates and prevalence of side effects for dapoxetine and paroxetine in a naturalistic setting. Int J Impot Res, 2015. 27: 75.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25410962/

817.Peng, J., et al. Efficacy of dapoxetine treatment in Chinese patients with premature ejaculation and possible factors affecting efficacy in the real-world practice. BMC Urol, 2020. 20: 11.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32013958/

818.Borgdorff, A.J., et al. Ejaculation elicited by microstimulation of lumbar spinothalamic neurons. Eur Urol, 2008. 54: 449.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18394782/

819.Truitt, W.A., et al. Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord. Science, 2002. 297: 1566.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12202834/

820.Giuliano, F. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in premature ejaculation: opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Trends Neurosci, 2007. 30: 79.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17169440/

821.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Paroxetine treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry, 1994. 151: 1377.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8067497/

822.Olivier, B., et al. Serotonin, serotonergic receptors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and sexual behaviour. Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 1998. 13 Suppl 6: S9.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9728669/

823.Zhang, D., et al. Paroxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Urol, 2019. 19: 2.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30606186/

824.Waldinger, M.D. Emerging drugs for premature ejaculation. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs, 2006. 11: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16503829/

825.Migliorini, F., et al. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Effect of a Single Oral Dose of 5-HT1A Antagonist GSK958108 on Ejaculation Latency Time in Male Patients Suffering From Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 63.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33223426/

826.Waldinger, M.D. Premature ejaculation: definition and drug treatment. Drugs, 2007. 67: 547.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17352514/

827.Goodman, R.E. An assessment of clomipramine (Anafranil) in the treatment of premature ejaculation. J Int Med Res, 1980. 8 Suppl 3: 53.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7193614/

828.Choi, J.B., et al. Efficacy and Safety of On Demand Clomipramine for the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Clinical Trial. J Urol, 2019. 201: 147.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30086277/

829.Kim, S.W., et al. Tolerability and adequate therapeutic dosage of oral clomipramine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel-grouped clinical study. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 65.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29203842/

830.Waldinger, M.D., et al. Effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 1998. 18: 274.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9690692/

831.Waldinger, M.D., et al. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 2001. 21: 556.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11763001/

832.Tanrikut, C., et al. Antidepressant-associated changes in semen parameters. Urology, 2007. 69: 185.e5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17270655/

833.Tanrikut, C., et al. Adverse effect of paroxetine on sperm. Fertil Steril, 2010. 94: 1021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19515367/

834.Koyuncu, H., et al. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters. Int J Impot Res, 2011. 23: 257.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21776003/

835.Koyuncu, H., et al. Deleterious effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on semen parameters in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Int J Impot Res, 2012. 24: 171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22573230/

836.Morales, A., et al. A review of the current status of topical treatments for premature ejaculation. BJU Int, 2007. 100: 493.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17608824/

837.Sachs, B.D., et al. Maintenance of erection of penile glans, but not penile body, after transection of rat cavernous nerves. J Urol, 1991. 146: 900.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1875517/

838.Wieder, J.A., et al. Anesthetic block of the dorsal penile nerve inhibits vibratory-induced ejaculation in men with spinal cord injuries. Urology, 2000. 55: 915.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10840108/

839.James, M.M.S., et al. Topical anaesthetics for premature ejaculation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sexual Health, 2016. 13: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26599522/

840.Pu, C., et al. Topical anesthetic agents for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Urology, 2013. 81: 799.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23434101/

841.Liu, H., et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of drug treatment for premature ejaculation: A systemic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Andrologia, 2020: e13806.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32892379/

842.Atikeler, M.K., et al. Optimum usage of prilocaine-lidocaine cream in premature ejaculation. Andrologia, 2002. 34: 356.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12472618/

843.Busato, W., et al. Topical anaesthetic use for treating premature ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BJU Int, 2004. 93: 1018.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15142155/

844.Sutton, M., et al. Promescent Has a Cytotoxic Impact on Fresh Human Sperm In Vitro. Urology, 2018. 114: 95.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29307732/

845.Porst, H., et al. Fortacin Spray for the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation. Urologia, 2017. 84: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30047847/

846.Henry, R., et al. TEMPE: Topical Eutectic-Like Mixture for Premature Ejaculation. Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2008. 5: 251.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18248322/

847.Dinsmore, W.W., et al. Topical eutectic mixture for premature ejaculation (TEMPE): a novel aerosol-delivery form of lidocaine-prilocaine for treating premature ejaculation. BJU Int, 2007. 99: 369.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17129234/

848.Dinsmore, W.W., et al. PSD502 improves ejaculatory latency, control and sexual satisfaction when applied topically 5 min before intercourse in men with premature ejaculation: results of a phase III, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BJU Int, 2009. 103: 940.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19245438/

849.Carson, C., et al. PSD502 increases ejaculatory latency, control and satisfaction: Results of a phase III, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study in the US and Europe. J Sex Med, 2010.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20584124/

850.ECCR, Fortacin 150 mg/ml + 50 mg/ml cutaneous spray solution - Summary of Product Characteristcs. 2015.

https://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/community-register/2015/20151015133209/anx_133209_en.pdf

851.Waldinger, M.D. Drug treatment options for premature ejaculation. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2018. 19: 1077.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30028639/

852.Wyllie, M.G., et al. The role of local anaesthetics in premature ejaculation. BJU Int, 2012. 110: E943.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22758648/

853.Morales, A. Evolving therapeutic strategies for premature ejaculation: The search for on-demand treatment - topical versus systemic. Can Urol Assoc J, 2012. 6: 380.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23093633/

854.Alghobary, M., et al. Oral dapoxetine versus topical lidocaine as on-demand treatment for lifelong premature ejaculation: A randomised controlled trial. Andrologia, 2020. 52: e13558.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32153050/

855.Abu El-Hamd, M. Effectiveness and tolerability of lidocaine 5% spray in the treatment of lifelong premature ejaculation patients: a randomized single-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int
J Impot Res, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31896832/

856.Frink, M.C., et al. Influence of tramadol on neurotransmitter systems of the rat brain. Arzneimittelforschung, 1996. 46: 1029.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8955860/

857.Bar-Or, D., et al. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of the tramadol orally disintegrating tablet for the treatment of premature ejaculation within less than 2 minutes. Eur Urol, 2012. 61: 736.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21889833/

858.Ur Rehman, M.F., et al. Comparison of the Efficacy of Tramadol and Paroxetine in the Management of Premature Ejaculation. Cureus, 2020. 12: e10725.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33145131/

859.Hamidi-Madani, A., et al. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial. J Reprod Infertil, 2018. 19: 10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29850442/

860.Gameel, T.A., et al. On-demand use of tramadol, sildenafil, paroxetine and local anaesthetics for the management of premature ejaculation: A randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arab J Urol, 2013. 11: 392.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26558110/

861.Alghobary, M., et al. Evaluation of tramadol on demand vs. daily paroxetine as a long-term treatment of lifelong premature ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2860.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20367773/

862.Lu, Y., et al. The Influence of Tramadol on Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency Time and Sexual Satisfaction Score in Treating Patients With Premature Ejaculation: A Network Meta-Analysis. Am
J Mens Health, 2021. 15: 15579883211057713.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34911381/

863.FDA, Warning letter to William Weldon, CEO & Chairman of Johnson & Johnson, regarding Ultram-ER web advertisement. 2009.

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/.../UCM153130.pdf

864.Kurkar, A., et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of “on-demand” tramadol for treatment of premature ejaculation. Urol Ann, 2015. 7: 205.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25835132/

865.Kirby, E.W., et al. Tramadol for the management of premature ejaculation: A timely systematic review. Int J Impot Res, 2015. 27: 121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25971856/

866.Martyn St James, M., et al. Tramadol for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]. BMC Urology, 2015. 15: 6.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25636495/

867.Tan, H., et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of “on-demand” use of tramadol vs “on-demand” use of paroxetine in the management of patients with premature ejaculation. Int J Clin Pract, 2021. 75: e14825.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34492139/

868.Sharma, A.P., et al. Safety and efficacy of “on-demand” tramadol in patients with premature ejaculation: an updated meta-analysis. Int Braz J Urol, 2021. 47: 921.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33566469/

869.McMahon, C.G., et al. Efficacy of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in men with premature ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 368.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422868/

870.Abu El-Hamd, M. Efficacy and safety of daily use of tadalafil in treatment of patients with premature ejaculation: A randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Andrologia, 2018. 50: e13005.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29527702/

871.Salonia, A., et al. A prospective study comparing paroxetine alone versus paroxetine plus sildenafil in patients with premature ejaculation. J Urol, 2002. 168: 2486.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12441946/

872.Zhang, X.S., et al. [Comparison between sildenafil plus sertraline and sertraline alone in the treatment of premature ejaculation]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, 2005. 11: 520.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16078671/

873.Chen, J., et al. Efficacy of sildenafil as adjuvant therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in alleviating premature ejaculation. Urology, 2003. 61: 197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12559295/

874.Polat, E.C., et al. Combination therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Andrologia, 2015. 47: 487.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24811578/

875.Tang, W., et al. [Clinical efficacy of Viagra with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, 2004. 10: 366.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15190831/

876.McMahon, C.G., et al. Efficacy of type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the drug treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review. BJU Int, 2006. 98: 259.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16879663/

877.Wang, W.F., et al. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Int
J Androl, 2006. 29: 503.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16573707/

878.Zhang, X., et al. Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors for Premature Ejaculation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials. Am J Mens Health, 2020. 14: 1557988320916406.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32375542/

879.Bai, Y., et al. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Plus Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors for Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Urology, 2015. 86: 758.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26247816/

880.Moudi, E., et al. Comparison Between Tadalafil Plus Paroxetine and Paroxetine Alone in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation. Nephrourol Mon, 2016. 8: e32286.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26981497/

881.Sun, Y., et al. Efficacy of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor in Men With Premature Ejaculation: A New Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Review]. Urology, 2015. 86: 947.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26278825/

882.Men, C., et al. Efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on primary premature ejaculation in men receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Andrologia, 2016. 48: 978.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26791333/

883.Martyn-St James, M., et al. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors for Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol Focus, 2017. 3: 119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28720356/

884.Bhat, G.S., et al. Effectiveness of ‘on demand’ silodosin in the treatment of premature ejaculation in patients dissatisfied with dapoxetine: a randomized control study. Cent European J Urol, 2016.
69: 280.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27729995/

885.Sato, Y., et al. Silodosin versus naftopidil in the treatment of premature ejaculation: A prospective multicenter trial. Int J Urol, 2017. 24: 626.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28627033/

886.Sato, Y., et al. Silodosin and its potential for treating premature ejaculation: a preliminary report. Int
J Urol, 2012. 19: 268.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22188258/

887.Tuken, M., et al. On-demand Modafinil Improves Ejaculation Time and Patient-reported Outcomes in Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation. Urology, 2016. 94: 139.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27151339/

888.Sahin, S., et al. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study to Compare Acupuncture and Dapoxetine for the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation. Urol Int, 2016. 97: 104.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27049323/

889.Kim, J.J., et al. Effects of glans penis augmentation using hyaluronic acid gel for premature ejaculation. Int J Impot Res, 2004. 16: 547.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15057258/

890.Kwak, T.I., et al. Long-term effects of glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel for premature ejaculation. Int J Impot Res, 2008. 20: 425.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18548080/

891.Abdallah, H., et al. Treatment of premature ejaculation by glans penis augmentation using hyaluronic acid gel: a pilot study. Andrologia, 2012. 44 Suppl 1: 650.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22013959/

892.Alahwany, A., et al. Hyaluronic acid injection in glans penis for treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomized controlled cross-over study. Int J Impot Res, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30610210/

893.Ahn, S.T., et al. Complications of glans penis augmentation. Int J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 245.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30478264/

894.Clement, P., et al. Inhibition of ejaculation by the non-peptide oxytocin receptor antagonist GSK557296: a multi-level site of action. Br J Pharmacol, 2013. 169: 1477.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23530818/

895.Shinghal, R., et al. Safety and efficacy of epelsiban in the treatment of men with premature ejaculation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study. J Sex Med, 2013.
10: 2506.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23937679/

896.Osterloh, I.H., et al. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Single Oral Doses of a Novel Oxytocin Receptor Antagonist-Cligosiban-in Development for Premature Ejaculation: Three Randomized Clinical Trials in Healthy Subjects. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1547.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30341006/

897.Wayman, C., et al. Cligosiban, A Novel Brain-Penetrant, Selective Oxytocin Receptor Antagonist, Inhibits Ejaculatory Physiology in Rodents. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1698.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30527053/

898.McMahon, C., et al. The Oxytocin Antagonist Cligosiban Prolongs Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency and Improves Patient-Reported Outcomes in Men with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Proof-of-Concept Trial (PEPIX). J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1178.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31351659/

899.Jiang, M., et al. The efficacy of regular penis-root masturbation, versus Kegel exercise in the treatment of primary premature ejaculation: A quasi-randomised controlled trial. Andrologia, 2020. 52: e13473.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31746051/

900.Shechter, A., et al. Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation-a novel therapy for premature ejaculation: results of a proof of concept study. Int J Impot Res, 2020. 32: 440.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31570825/

901.Uribe, O.L., et al. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation to treat patients with premature ejaculation: phase II clinical trial. Int J Impot Res, 2020. 32: 434.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31551577/

902.Joshi, A.M., et al. Role of Yoga in the Management of Premature Ejaculation. World J Mens Health, 2020. 38: 495.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31496152/

903.Rowland, D.L., et al. Moving Toward Empirically Based Standardization in the Diagnosis of Delayed Ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 1896.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32828700/

904.Shin, D.H., et al. The Evaluation and Treatment of Delayed Ejaculation. Sexual Medicine Reviews, 2014. 2: 121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27784563/

905.Abdel-Hamid, I.A., et al. Delayed Ejaculation: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. World
J Mens Health, 2018. 36: 22.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29299903/

906.Morgentaler, A., et al. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 1116.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28807505/

907.Paduch, D.A., et al. Clinical and Demographic Correlates of Ejaculatory Dysfunctions Other Than Premature Ejaculation: A Prospective, Observational Study. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 2276.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26511106/

908.Butcher, M.J., et al., Treatment of Delayed Ejaculation, In: The Textbook of Clinical Sexual Medicine, W.W. IsHak, Editor. 2017, Springer International Publishing: Cham.

909.Rowland, D., et al. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1668.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20388164/

910.Carvalheira, A., et al. Individual and Relationship Factors Associated With the Self-Identified Inability to Experience Orgasm in a Community Sample of Heterosexual Men From Three European Countries. J Sex Marital Ther, 2016. 42: 257.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25650656/

911.Althof, S.E. Psychological interventions for delayed ejaculation/orgasm. Int J Impot Res, 2012. 24: 131.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22378496/

912.Butcher, M.J., et al. How is delayed ejaculation defined and treated in North America? Andrology, 2015. 3: 626.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26013106/

913.Nelson, C.J., et al. Assessment of penile vibratory stimulation as a management strategy in men with secondary retarded orgasm. Urology, 2007. 69: 552.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17382163/

914.Soler, J.M., et al. Midodrine improves orgasm in spinal cord-injured men: the effects of autonomic stimulation. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 2935.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18422493/

915.Geboes, K., et al. Primary anejaculation: diagnosis and therapy. Feril Steril, 1975. 26: 1018.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1081053/

916.Ohl, D.A., et al. Anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Urol Clin North Am, 2008. 35: 211.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18423241/

917.Brindley, G.S. Reflex ejaculation under vibratory stimulation in paraplegic men. Paraplegia, 1981.
19: 299.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7279433/

918.Schatte Edward, C., et al. Treatment of infertility due to anejaculation in the male with electroejaculation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Urol, 2000. 163: 1717.

https://www.auajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1016/S0022-5347%2805%2967527-1

919.Esteves, S.C., et al. An update on sperm retrieval techniques for azoospermic males. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013. 68 Suppl 1: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23503959/

920.Maurer, C.A., et al. Total mesorectal excision preserves male genital function compared with conventional rectal cancer surgery. Br J Surg, 2001. 88: 1501.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11683749/

921.Parnham, A., et al. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 592.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27652230/

922.Edwards, A. Chronic disease of the colliculus seminalis. Brit Med J, 1909. 2: 1672.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20764794

923.Grosse, A.B. Remarks on Impotentia Cocundi and Sexual Neurasthenia and Their Treatment. California State J Med, 1911. 9: 25.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18735133/

924.Irwin, W.K. Pain in genito-urinary affections: Its Variations and their Interpretation. Brit Med J, 1922. 2: 457.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20770853

925.Tran, C.N., et al. Sexual dysfunction in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. World
J Urol, 2013. 31: 741.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23579441/

926.Kleinberg, L., et al. Treatment-related symptoms during the first year following transperineal 125I prostate implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1994. 28: 985.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8138452/

927.Walz, J., et al. Ejaculatory disorders may affect screening for prostate cancer. J Urol, 2007. 178: 232.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17499807/

928.Koeman, M., et al. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy. British J Urol, 1996. 77: 861.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8705222/

929.Matsushita, K., et al. The evolution of orgasmic pain (dysorgasmia) following radical prostatectomy. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 1454.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22458302/

930.Merrick, G.S., et al. Short-term sexual function after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Cancer, 2001.
96: 313.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11582584/

931.Butler, J.D., et al. Painful ejaculation after inguinal hernia repair. J Royal Soc Med, 1998. 91: 432.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9816362/

932.Aizenberg, D., et al. Painful ejaculation associated with antidepressants in four patients. J Clin Psych, 1991. 52: 461.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1744063/

933.Kulik, F.A., et al. Case report of painful ejaculation as a side effect of amoxapine. Am J Psych, 1982. 139: 234.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7055299/

934.Michael, A. Venlafaxine-induced painful ejaculation. Br J Psychiatry, 2000. 177: 282.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11040898/

935.Lange, W.R., et al. Can ciguatera be a sexually transmitted disease? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 1989.
27: 193.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2810444/

936.Senthilkumaran, S., et al. Painful ejaculation. Something fishy. Saudi Med J, 2010. 31: 451.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20383428/

937.Kaplan, H.S. Post-ejaculatory pain syndrome. J Sex Marital Ther, 1993. 19: 91.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8336348/

938.Demyttenaere, K., et al. Painful ejaculation and urinary hesitancy in association with antidepressant therapy: relief with tamsulosin. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 2002. 12: 337.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12126873/

939.Jordi, P., et al. Management of ejaculation pain with topiramate: a case report. Clin J Pain, 2004.
20: 368.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15322446/

940.Cornel, E.B., et al. The effect of biofeedback physical therapy in men with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Type III. Eur Urol, 2005. 47: 607.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15826751

941.Tuhkanen, K., et al. Sexual function of LUTS patients before and after neodymium laser prostatectomy and transurethral resection of prostate. A prospective, randomized trial. Urologia Internationalis, 2004. 73: 137.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15331898/

942.Krause, W. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts for treating ejaculatory symptoms. BJU international, 2005. 96: 1145.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16225549/

943.Giuliano, F., et al. Physiology of ejaculation: emphasis on serotonergic control. Eur Urol, 2005. 48: 408.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15996810/

944.Proctor, K.G., et al. The effect of sympathomimetic drugs on post-lymphadenectomy aspermia.
J Urol, 1983. 129: 837.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6842716

945.Gilja, I., et al. Retrograde ejaculation and loss of emission: possibilities of conservative treatment. Eur Urol, 1994. 25: 226.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8200405

946.Hotchkiss, R.S., et al. Artificial insemination with semen recovered from the bladder. Feril Steril, 1954. 6: 37.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13220644/

947.Templeton, A., et al. Successful circumvention of retrograde ejaculation in an infertile diabetic man. Case report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1982. 89: 1064.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7171519/

948.Crich, J.P., et al. Infertility in men with retrograde ejaculation: the action of urine on sperm motility, and a simple method for achieving antegrade ejaculation. Feril Steril, 1978. 30: 572.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/720646

949.Jenkins, L.C., et al. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia. Feril Steril, 2015. 104: 1082.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26439762/

950.Calabrò, R.S., et al. Anorgasmia during pregabalin add-on therapy for partial seizures. Epileptic Disord, 2013. 15: 358.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23906723/

951.McMahon, C.G., et al. Standard operating procedures in the disorders of orgasm and ejaculation. The J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 204.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22970767/

952.McCormick, S., et al. Reversal of fluoxetine-induced anorgasmia by cyproheptadine in two patients. J Clin Psych, 1990. 51: 383.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2211550/

953.Balon, R. Intermittent amantadine for fluoxetine-induced anorgasmia. J Sex Marital Ther, 1996.
22: 290.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9018655/

954.Balogh, S., et al. Treatment of fluoxetine-induced anorgasmia with amantadine. J Clin Psych, 1992. 53: 212.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1607353/

955.Price, J., et al. Treatment of clomipramine-induced anorgasmia with yohimbine: a case report. J Clin Psych, 1990. 51: 32.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2295589/

956.Jacobsen, F.M. Fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction and an open trial of yohimbine. J Clin Psych, 1992. 53: 119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1564046/

957.Ashton, A.K., et al. Bupropion as an antidote for serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction. J Clin Psych, 1998. 59: 112.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9541153/

958.Kumar, P., et al. Haematospermia - a systematic review. Ann R Coll Surg Engl, 2006. 88: 339.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16834849/

959.Ahmad, I., et al. Hemospermia. J Urol, 2007. 177: 1613.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17437771/

960.Efesoy, O., et al. Hematospermia is rarely related to genitourinary cancer: lessons learned from
15 years of experience with 342 cases. Int J Impot Res, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32704074/

961.Akhter, W., et al. Should every patient with hematospermia be investigated? A critical review. Central European J Urol, 2013. 66: 79.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24758999/

962.Hosseinzadeh, K., et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Hematospermia. J Am Coll Radiol, 2017. 14: S154.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28473071/

963.Bhaduri, S., et al. Haematospermia associated with malignant hypertension. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 1999. 75: 200.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10448405/

964.Close, C.F., et al. The association between haemospermia and severe hypertension. Postgrad Med J, 1991. 67: 157.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2041846/

965.Bamberger, E., et al. Detection of sexually transmitted pathogens in patients with hematospermia. Israel Med Ass J: IMAJ, 2005. 7: 224.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15849869/

966.Munkel witz, R., et al. Current perspectives on hematospermia: a review. J Androl, 1997. 18: 6.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9089062/

967.Cho, I.R., et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in hemospermia. J Urol, 1997. 157: 258.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8976266

968.Lencioni, R., et al. Endorectal coil MR imaging findings in hemospermia. Magma (New York, N.Y.), 1999. 8: 91.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10456371/

969.Li, Y.-F., et al. Imaging diagnosis, transurethral endoscopic observation, and management of 43 cases of persistent and refractory hematospermia. J Androl, 2012. 33: 906.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22323622/

970.Cui, Z.-Q., et al. [Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy combined with finasteride for recurrent hematospermia]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, 2014. 20: 536.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25029861/

971.Liu, Z.-Y., et al. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of persistent or recurrent hemospermia: a single-institution experience. Asian J Androl, 2009. 11: 566.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19701221/

972.Xing, C., et al. Prospective trial comparing transrectal ultrasonography and transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy for persistent hematospermia. Int J Urol, 2012. 19: 437.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22221075/

973.Lowell, D.M., et al. Melanospermia: a hitherto undescribed entity. J Urol, 1966. 95: 407.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/5906009/

974.Smith, G.W., et al. Melanospermia: an unusual presentation of malignant melanoma. J Urol, 1973. 110: 314.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4725737/

975.Manohar, T., et al. Transrectal ultrasound- and fluoroscopic-assisted transurethral incision of ejaculatory ducts: a problem-solving approach to nonmalignant hematospermia due to ejaculatory duct obstruction. J Endourol, 2008. 22: 1531.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18690817/

976.Fuse, H., et al. Transurethral incision for hematospermia caused by ejaculatory duct obstruction. Archives of Andrology, 2003. 49: 433.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1455325/

977.Mittal, P.K., et al. Hematospermia Evaluation at MR Imaging. Radiographics, 2016. 36: 1373.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27517360/

978.Suh, Y., et al. Etiologic classification, evaluation, and management of hematospermia. Transl Androl Urol, 2017. 6: 959.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29184797/

979.WHO, International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. Vol. 1. 2004.

https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/246208

980.McCabe, M.P., et al. Definitions of Sexual Dysfunctions in Women and Men: A Consensus Statement From the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 135.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26953828/

981.Meissner, V.H., et al. Factors Associated with Low Sexual Desire in 45-Year-Old Men: Findings from the German Male Sex-Study. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 981.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31196838/

982.Levine, S.B. The nature of sexual desire: a clinician’s perspective. Arch Sex Behav, 2003. 32: 279.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12807300/

983.Rubio-Aurioles, E., et al. Standard operational procedures for low sexual desire in men. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 94.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22971157/

984.Nimbi, F.M., et al. Male Sexual Desire: An Overview of Biological, Psychological, Sexual, Relational, and Cultural Factors Influencing Desire. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 59.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30803921/

985.Carvalho, J., et al. Predictors of men’s sexual desire: the role of psychological, cognitive-emotional, relational, and medical factors. J Sex Res, 2011. 48: 254.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20191421/

986.Carvalho, J., et al. Gender issues and sexual desire: the role of emotional and relationship variables. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2469.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20102479/

987.Vowels, L.M., et al. Uncovering the Most Important Factors for Predicting Sexual Desire Using Explainable Machine Learning. J Sex Med, 2021. 18: 1198.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34183292/

988.Mark, K.P., et al. Maintaining Sexual Desire in Long-Term Relationships: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Model. J Sex Res, 2018. 55: 563.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29521522/

989.Deziel, J., et al. Anxiety, Dispositional Mindfulness, and Sexual Desire in Men Consulting in Clinical Sexology: A Mediational Model. J Sex Marital Ther, 2018. 44: 513.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29281564/

990.Dewitte, M., et al. Sexual Desire Discrepancy: A Position Statement of the European Society for Sexual Medicine. Sex Med, 2020. 8: 121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32192965/

991.Zitzmann, M., et al. Association of specific symptoms and metabolic risks with serum testosterone in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006. 91: 4335.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16926258/

992.Meuleman, E.J., et al. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: an underestimated condition in men. BJU Int, 2005. 95: 291.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15679780/

993.Dei, M., et al. Sex steroids and libido. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care, 1997. 2: 253.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9678082/

994.Spector, I.P., et al. The sexual desire inventory: development, factor structure, and evidence of reliability. J Sex Marital Ther, 1996. 22: 175.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8880651/

995.Kennedy, S.H., et al. Sexual dysfunction before antidepressant therapy in major depression. J Affect Disord, 1999. 56: 201.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10701478/

996.Isidori, A.M., et al. Effects of testosterone on sexual function in men: results of a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2005. 63: 381.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16181230/

997.Corona, G., et al. Effect of hyperprolactinemia in male patients consulting for sexual dysfunction.
J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 1485.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17655655/

998.Nobre, P.J., et al., Principles and Practice of Sex Therapy: Sixth Edition - Low sexual desire in men., ed. Kathryn S. K. Hall. & Y.M. Binik. 2020, New York.

999.Jannini, E.A., et al. Couplepause: A New Paradigm in Treating Sexual Dysfunction During Menopause and Andropause. Sex Med Rev, 2018. 6: 384.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29371146/

1000.Wang, A.T., et al. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev, 2012. 1: 33.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22828169/

1001.Cuijpers, P., et al. The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 2010. 121: 415.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19922522/

1002.Yachia, D., et al. The incidence of congenital penile curvature. J Urol, 1993. 150: 1478.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8411431/

1003.Montag, S., et al. Abnormalities of penile curvature: chordee and penile torsion. Sci World J, 2011. 11: 1470.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21805016/

1004.Baskin, L.S., et al. Penile curvature. Urology, 1996. 48: 347.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8804484/

1005.Menon, V., et al. Do adult men with untreated ventral penile curvature have adverse outcomes?
J Pediatr Urol, 2016. 12: 31.e1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26776946/

1006.Hayashi, Y., et al. Can spongioplasty prevent fistula formation and correct penile curvature in TIP urethroplasty for hypospadias? Urology, 2013. 81: 1330.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23453651/

1007.Akbulut, F., et al. Neurovascular bundle dissection for Nesbit procedure in congenital penile curvature patients: Medial or lateral? Asian J Androl, 2014. 16: 442.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24625879

1008.Alei, G., et al. New surgical technique for ventral penile curvature without circumcision. BJU International, 2014. 113: 968.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25035866

1009.Bhat, A., et al. Correlation of severity of penile torsion with type of hypospadias & ventral penile curvature and their management. African J Urol, 2015. 21: 111.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275059147/

1010.Cantoro, U., et al. Plication corporoplasty for congenital penile curvature: our results with long-term follow-up. Int Urol Nephrol, 2014. 46: 1741.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24818593/

1011.Chung, P.H., et al. Dorsal plication without degloving is safe and effective for correcting ventral penile deformities. Urology, 2014. 84: 1228.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25443939/

1012.Golomb, D., et al. Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood. Urology, 2018. 112: 161.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29051007/

1013.Perdzynski, W., et al. Three anatomical levels: Possibilities to decrease invasiveness of reconstructive surgery for congenital penile curvature. Central European J Urol, 2017. 70: 280.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29104792/

1014.Schlomer, B.J. Correction of Residual Ventral Penile Curvature After Division of the Urethral Plate in the First Stage of a 2-Stage Proximal Hypospadias Repair. Curr Urol Rep, 2017. 18: 13.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28213855/

1015.Seo, S., et al. Correction of penile ventral curvature in patients with minor or no hypospadias: a single surgeon’s experience of 43 cases. Pediatr Surg Int, 2016. 32: 975.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27488311/

1016.Shaeer, O., et al. Shaeer’s Corporal Rotation III: Shortening-Free Correction of Congenital Penile Curvature - The Noncorporotomy Technique. Eur Urol, 2016. 69: 129.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26298209/

1017.Shaeer, O. Shaeer’s corporal rotation for length-preserving correction of penile curvature: modifications and 3-year experience. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 2716.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18624969/

1018.Shaeer, O. Trans-corporal incision of Peyronie’s plaques. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 589.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20955315/

1019.Shaeer, O. Shaeer’s Corporal Rotation. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 16.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092460/

1020.Chung, E., et al. Prevalence of penile curvature: a population-based cross-sectional study in metropolitan and rural cities in Australia. BJU International, 2018. 122: 42.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30387224/

1021.Arafa, M., et al. The prevalence of Peyronie’s disease in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res, 2007. 19: 213.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16915304/

1022.Kumar, B., et al. A clinico-aetiological and ultrasonographic study of Peyronie’s disease. Sex Health, 2006. 3: 113.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16800397/

1023.La Pera, G., et al. Peyronie’s disease: prevalence and association with cigarette smoking. A multicenter population-based study in men aged 50-69 years. Eur Urol, 2001. 40: 525.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11752860/

1024.Lindsay, M.B., et al. The incidence of Peyronie’s disease in Rochester, Minnesota, 1950 through 1984. J Urol, 1991. 146: 1007.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1895413/

1025.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Subjective and objective analysis of the prevalence of Peyronie’s disease in a population of men presenting for prostate cancer screening. J Urol, 2004. 171: 2350.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15126819/

1026.Rhoden, E.L., et al. Prevalence of Peyronie’s disease in men over 50-y-old from Southern Brazil. Int J Impot Res, 2001. 13: 291.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11890516/

1027.Schwarzer, U., et al. The prevalence of Peyronie’s disease: results of a large survey. BJU Int, 2001. 88: 727.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11890244/

1028.Sommer, F., et al. Epidemiology of Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14: 379.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12454689/

1029.Kadioglu, A., et al. A Population-Based Study of Peyronie’s Disease in Turkey: Prevalence and Related Comorbidities. Sex Med, 2020. 8: 679.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33243422/

1030.Segundo, A., et al. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Erectile Dysfunction Associated With Peyronie’s Disease Among Men Seeking Urological Care. Sex Med, 2020. 8: 230.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32007472/

1031.Stuntz, M., et al. The Prevalence of Peyronie’s Disease in the United States: A Population-Based Study. PLoS One, 2016. 11: e0150157.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26907743/

1032.Tefekli, A., et al. Peyronie’s disease in men under age 40: characteristics and outcome. Int J Impot Res, 2001. 13: 18.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11313836/

1033.Levine, L.A., et al. Peyronie disease in younger men: characteristics and treatment results. J Androl, 2003. 24: 27.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12514077/

1034.Devine, C.J., Jr., et al. Proposal: trauma as the cause of the Peyronie’s lesion. J Urol, 1997. 157: 285.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8976281/

1035.Gonzalez-Cadavid, N.F., et al. Mechanisms of Disease: new insights into the cellular and molecular pathology of Peyronie’s disease. Nat Clin Pract Urol, 2005. 2: 291.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16474811/

1036.Jarow, J.P., et al. Penile trauma: an etiologic factor in Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction.
J Urol, 1997. 158: 1388.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9302127/

1037.Herati, A.S., et al. The Genetic Basis of Peyronie Disease: A Review. Sex Med Rev, 2016. 4: 85.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27872008/

1038.Gabrielsen, J.S. Peyronie’s disease: is it genetic or not? Transl Androl Urol, 2020. 9: S262.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32257867/

1039.Ventimiglia, E., et al. Peyronie’s disease and autoimmunity-a real-life clinical study and comprehensive review. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 1062.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25630575/

1040.Kadioglu, A., et al. A retrospective review of 307 men with Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2002.
168: 1075.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12187226/

1041.Rhoden, E.L., et al. A cross-sectional study for the analysis of clinical, sexual and laboratory conditions associated to Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1529.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19912489/

1042.Cavallini, G., et al. Association between Peyronie disease and low serum testosterone levels: detection and therapeutic considerations. J Androl, 2012. 33: 381.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21719695/

1043.Bjekic, M.D., et al. Risk factors for Peyronie’s disease: a case-control study. BJU Int, 2006. 97: 570.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16469028/

1044.Carrieri, M.P., et al. A case-control study on risk factors for Peyronie’s disease. J Clin Epidemiol, 1998. 51: 511.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9636000/

1045.Deveci, S., et al. Defining the clinical characteristics of Peyronie’s disease in young men. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 485.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17081219/

1046.Shindel, A.W., et al. Prevalence of Peyronie’s Disease-Like Symptoms in Men Presenting With Dupuytren Contractures. Sex Med, 2017. 5: e135.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28676223/

1047.Mohede, D.C.J., et al. Prevalence of Peyronie and Ledderhose Diseases in a Series of 730 Patients with Dupuytren Disease. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2020. 145: 978.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32221218/

1048.Ralph, D., et al. The management of Peyronie’s disease: evidence-based 2010 guidelines. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2359.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20497306/

1049.Gelbard, M.K., et al. The natural history of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1990. 144: 1376.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2231932/

1050.Mulhall, J.P., et al. An analysis of the natural history of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2006. 175: 2115.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16697815/

1051.Berookhim, B.M., et al. Deformity stabilization and improvement in men with untreated Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2014. 113: 133.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24053665/

1052.Pryor, J.P., et al. Clinical presentations of Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14: 414.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12454695/

1053.Nelson, C.J., et al. The chronology of depression and distress in men with Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1985.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18554257/

1054.Hellstrom, W.J., et al. Bother and distress associated with Peyronie’s disease: validation of the Peyronie’s disease questionnaire. J Urol, 2013. 190: 627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23376705/

1055.Russo, G.I., et al. Clinical Efficacy of Injection and Mechanical Therapy for Peyronie’s Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Eur Urol, 2018. 74: 767.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30237020/

1056.Masterson, T.A., et al. Characteristics predictive of response to collagenase clostridium histolyticum for Peyronie’s disease: a review of the literature. World J Urol, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31250098/

1057.Chung, E., et al. Evidence-Based Management Guidelines on Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 905.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27215686/

1058.Bekos, A., et al. The natural history of Peyronie’s disease: an ultrasonography-based study. Eur Urol, 2008. 53: 644.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17673362/

1059.Greenfield, J.M., et al. Factors affecting the loss of length associated with tunica albuginea plication for correction of penile curvature. J Urol, 2006. 175: 238.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16406919/

1060.Liguori, G., et al. Objective measurements of the penile angulation are significantly different than self-estimated magnitude among patients with penile curvature. Int Braz J, 2018. 44: 555.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29570261/

1061.Habous, M., et al. Outcomes of variation in technique and variation in accuracy of measurement in penile length measurement. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 21.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29180797/

1062.Levine, L.A., et al. Establishing a standardized evaluation of the man with Peyronie’s disease. Int
J Impot Res, 2003. 15 Suppl 5: S103.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14551586/

1063.Ozmez, A., et al. The Effectiveness of 3-D Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Penile Deformities in Patients With Peyronie’s Disease: A Pilot Study. Sex Med, 2019. 7: 311.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31324507/

1064.Hauck, E.W., et al. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in Peyronie’s disease--a comparison both with palpation and ultrasound in the evaluation of plaque formation. Eur Urol, 2003. 43: 293.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12600434/

1065.Nguyen, H.M.T., et al. Safety and Efficacy of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the Treatment of Acute-Phase Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 1220.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28874331/

1066.Gholami, S.S., et al. Peyronie’s disease: a review. J Urol, 2003. 169: 1234.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12629334/

1067.Kadioglu, A., et al. Color Doppler ultrasound assessment of penile vascular system in men with Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2000. 12: 263.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11424963/

1068.Dean, R.C., et al. Physiology of penile erection and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am, 2005. 32: 379.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16291031/

1069.McCauley, J.F., et al. Diagnostic utility of penile ultrasound in Peyronie’s disease. World J Urol, 2020. 38: 263.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31606787/

1070.Porst, H., et al. Standards for clinical trials in male sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 414.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092447/

1071.Muller, A., et al. Peyronie’s disease intervention trials: methodological challenges and issues. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 848.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19138374/

1072.Nehra, A., et al. Peyronie’s Disease: AUA Guideline. J Urol, 2015. 194: 745.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26066402/

1073.Bella, A.J., et al. 2018 Canadian Urological Association guideline for Peyronie’s disease and congenital penile curvature. Can Urol Assoc J, 2018. 12: E197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29792593/

1074.Dahm, P., et al. Moving from Consensus- to Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 170.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28065352/

1075.Safarinejad, M.R., et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of pentoxifylline in early chronic Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2010. 106: 240.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19863517/

1076.Safarinejad, M.R., et al. Retraction statement: A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of pentoxifylline in early chronic Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2015. 115: E10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25830185/

1077.Ferrini, M.G., et al. Effects of long-term vardenafil treatment on the development of fibrotic plaques in a rat model of Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2006. 97: 625.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16469038/

1078.Valente, E.G., et al. L-arginine and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors counteract fibrosis in the Peyronie’s fibrotic plaque and related fibroblast cultures. Nitric Oxide, 2003. 9: 229.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14996430/

1079.Ilg, M.M., et al. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Can Prevent But Not Reverse Myofibroblast Transformation in Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 1848.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32771352/

1080.Chung, E., et al. The role of PDE5 inhibitors in penile septal scar remodeling: assessment of clinical and radiological outcomes. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 1472.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21324095/

1081.Ozturk, U., et al. Effects of sildenafil treatment on patients with Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction. Ir J Med Sci, 2014. 183: 449.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24190613/

1082.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Peyronie’s disease cell culture models: phenotypic, genotypic and functional analyses. Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14: 397.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12454692/

1083.Roth, M., et al. Ca2+ channel blockers modulate metabolism of collagens within the extracellular matrix. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996. 93: 5478.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8643600/

1084.Favilla, V., et al. Evaluation of intralesional injection of hyaluronic acid compared with verapamil in Peyronie’s disease: preliminary results from a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study. Andrology, 2017. 5: 771.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28718527/

1085.Abern, M.R., et al. Combination of penile traction, intralesional verapamil, and oral therapies for Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 288.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22024053/

1086.Rehman, J., et al. Use of intralesional verapamil to dissolve Peyronie’s disease plaque: a long-term single-blind study. Urology, 1998. 51: 620.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9586617/

1087.Soh, J., et al. Nicardipine vs. saline injection as treatment for Peyronie’s disease: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 3743.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20584114/

1088.Toscano, L., Jr., et al. A prospective, randomized, single - blind study comparing intraplaque injection of thiocolchicine and verapamil in Peyronie’s Disease: a pilot study. Int Braz J Urol, 2016. 42: 1005.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24893912/

1089.Shirazi, M., et al. Effect of intralesional verapamil for treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int Urol Nephrol, 2009. 41: 467.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19199072/

1090.Gelbard, M.K., et al. The use of collagenase in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1985. 134: 280.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2991611/

1091.Ehrlich, H.P. Scar contracture: cellular and connective tissue aspects in Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1997. 157: 316.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8976288/

1092.Gelbard, M.K., et al. Collagenase versus placebo in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a double-blind study. J Urol, 1993. 149: 56.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8417217/

1093.Jordan, G.H. The use of intralesional clostridial collagenase injection therapy for Peyronie’s disease: a prospective, single-center, non-placebo-controlled study. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 180.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18173766/

1094.EMA, Assessement Report - Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum). 2014.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/variation-report/xiapex-h-c-2048-ii-0044-epar-assessment-report-variation_en.pdf

1095.Russo, G.I., et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Intralesional Therapy for Peyronie’s Disease in Controlled Clinical Studies: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med, 2019.
16: 289.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30692028/

1096.Lipshultz, L.I., et al. Clinical efficacy of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease by subgroup: results from two large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III studies. BJU Int, 2015. 116: 650.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25711400/

1097.Gelbard, M., et al. Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of collagenase clostridium histolyticum for the treatment of peyronie disease in 2 large double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled phase 3 studies. J Urol, 2013. 190: 199.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23376148/

1098.Levine, L.A., et al. Clinical safety and effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection in patients with Peyronie’s disease: a phase 3 open-label study. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 248.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25388099/

1099.Ziegelmann, M.J., et al. Restoration of Penile Function and Patient Satisfaction with Intralesional Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection for Peyronie’s Disease. J Urol, 2016. 195: 1051.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26476353/

1100.Yang, K.K., et al. Peyronie’s Disease and Injectable Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum: Safety, Efficacy, and Improvements in Subjective Symptoms. Urology, 2016. 94: 143.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27211926/

1101.Anaissie, J., et al. Impact of Number of Cycles of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum on Outcomes in Patients With Peyronie’s Disease. Urology, 2017. 100: 125.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27816605/

1102.Abdel Raheem, A., et al. Safety and effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease using a new modified shortened protocol. BJU Int, 2017. 120: 717.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28612401/

1103.Capece, M., et al. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a prospective Italian multicentric study. Andrology, 2018. 6: 564.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29733116/

1104.Cocci, A., et al. Predictors of treatment success after collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection for Peyronie’s disease: development of a nomogram from a multicentre single-arm, non-placebo controlled clinical study. BJU Int, 2018. 122: 680.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29791971/

1105.Carson, C.C., 3rd, et al. Analysis of the clinical safety of intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for adults with Peyronie’s disease (PD). BJU Int, 2015. 116: 815.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25818264/

1106.El-Khatib, F.M., et al. Management of Peyronie’s disease with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the acute phase. World J Urol, 2020. 38: 299.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31093703/

1107.Cocci, A., et al. Efficacy of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (Xiapex(®)) in Patients with the Acute Phase of Peyronie’s Disease. Clin Drug Investig, 2020. 40: 583.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32342279/

1108.Nguyen, H.M.T., et al. Safety and Efficacy of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the Treatment of Acute Phase Peyronie’s Disease: A Multi-institutional Analysis. Urology, 2020. 145: 147.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32777367/

1109.Duncan, M.R., et al. Regulation of the proliferation and biosynthetic activities of cultured human Peyronie’s disease fibroblasts by interferons-alpha, -beta and -gamma. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1991. 25: 89.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1651559/

1110.Hellstrom, W.J., et al. Single-blind, multicenter, placebo controlled, parallel study to assess the safety and efficacy of intralesional interferon alpha-2B for minimally invasive treatment for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2006. 176: 394.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16753449/

1111.Kendirci, M., et al. The impact of intralesional interferon alpha-2b injection therapy on penile hemodynamics in men with Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 709.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422829/

1112.Stewart, C.A., et al. Intralesional Injection of Interferon-alpha2b Improves Penile Curvature in Men with Peyronie’s Disease Independent of Plaque Location. J Urol, 2015. 194: 1704.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26144333/

1113.Cipollone, G., et al. [Betamethasone versus placebo in Peyronie’s disease]. Arch Ital Urol Androl, 1998. 70: 165.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9823662/

1114.Desanctis, P.N., et al. Steroid injection therapy for Peyronie’s disease: a 10-year summary and review of 38 cases. J Urol, 1967. 97: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6016195/

1115.Gennaro, R., et al. Intralesional hyaluronic acid: an innovative treatment for Peyronie’s disease. Int Urol Nephrol, 2015. 47: 1595.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26257044/

1116.Zucchi, A., et al. Intralesional Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in Patients Affected With Peyronie’s Disease: Preliminary Results From a Prospective, Multicenter, Pilot Study. Sex Med, 2016. 4: e83.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26984291/

1117.Cocci, A., et al. Comparison of Intralesional Hyaluronic Acid vs. Verapamil for the Treatment of Acute Phase Peyronie’s Disease: A Prospective, Open-Label Non-Randomized Clinical Study. World
J Mens Health, 2021. 39: 352.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32009312/

1118.Cai, T., et al. Oral Administration and Intralesional Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Versus Intralesional Injection Alone in Peyronie’s Disease: Results from a Phase III Study. World J Mens Health, 2021. 39: 526.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33151042/

1119.Munoz-Rangel, C.A., et al. Minimally Invasive Therapy Using Intralesional OnabotulinumtoxinA in Peyronie’s Disease. Urol J, 2015. 12: 2105.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25923158/

1120.Culha, M.G., et al. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Peyronie’s Disease in Rat Model. Urol Int, 2019. 102: 218.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30317233/

1121.Virag, R., et al. A New Treatment of Lapeyronie’s Disease by Local Injections of Plasma Rich Platelets (PRP) and Hyaluronic Acid. Preliminary Results. e-Mémoires de l’Académie Nationale de Chirurgie, 2014. 13: 96. [No abstract available].

1122.Virag R, et al. Evaluation of the benefit of using a combination of autologous platelet rich- plasma and hyaluronic acid for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Sex Health Issues, 2017. 1: 1.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323214609

1123.Marcovici, I. PRP and Correction of Penile Curvature (Peyronie’s Disease). Am J Cosmetic Surg, 2019. 36: 117.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0748806818798280

1124.Notsek, M., et al. PO-01-083 Platelet-rich plasma therapy of Peyronie’s disease. The J Sex Med, 2019. 16: S70.

https://www.jsm.jsexmed.org/article/S1743-6095(19)30682-4/fulltext

1125.Montorsi, F., et al. Transdermal electromotive multi-drug administration for Peyronie’s disease: preliminary results. J Androl, 2000. 21: 85.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10670523/

1126.Di Stasi, S.M., et al. Transdermal electromotive administration of verapamil and dexamethasone for Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2003. 91: 825.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12780842/

1127.Greenfield, J.M., et al. Verapamil versus saline in electromotive drug administration for Peyronie’s disease: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. J Urol, 2007. 177: 972.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17296390/

1128.Twidwell, J., et al. Topical treatment for acute phase Peyronie’s disease utilizing a new gel, H-100: a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled pilot study. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 41.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26700214/

1129.Husain, J., et al. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of Peyronie’s disease: initial experience. BJU Int, 2000. 86: 466.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10971273/

1130.Liu, T., et al. Cellular signaling pathways modulated by low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Int J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 170.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30670837/

1131.Palmieri, A., et al. A first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Eur Urol, 2009. 56: 363.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19473751/

1132.Chitale, S., et al. Limited shock wave therapy vs sham treatment in men with Peyronie’s disease: results of a prospective randomized controlled double-blind trial. BJU Int, 2010. 106: 1352.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20438568/

1133.Palmieri, A., et al. Tadalafil once daily and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of patients with Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction: results from a prospective randomized trial. Int J Androl, 2012. 35: 190.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22085227/

1134.Hatzichristodoulou, G., et al. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in Peyronie’s disease: results of a placebo-controlled, prospective, randomized, single-blind study. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 2815.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23898925/

1135.Gao, L., et al. A meta-analysis of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for Peyronie’s disease. Int
J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 161.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27250868/

1136.Gelbard, M. Myofibroblasts and mechanotransduction: do forces in the tunica albuginea contribute to Peyronie’s disease? J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 2974.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19090949/

1137.Chung, E., et al. Peyronie’s disease and mechanotransduction: an in vitro analysis of the cellular changes to Peyronie’s disease in a cell-culture strain system. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 1259.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23421851/

1138.Gontero, P., et al. Use of penile extender device in the treatment of penile curvature as a result of Peyronie’s disease. Results of a phase II prospective study. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 558.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19138361/

1139.Levine, L.A., et al. Penile traction therapy for treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a single-center pilot study. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1468.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18373527/

1140.Martinez-Salamanca, J.I., et al. Acute phase Peyronie’s disease management with traction device: a nonrandomized prospective controlled trial with ultrasound correlation. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 506.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24261900/

1141.Wymer, K., et al. Comparative Cost-effectiveness of Surgery, Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum, and Penile Traction Therapy in Men with Peyronie’s Disease in an Era of Effective Clinical Treatment. The J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1421.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31351851/

1142.Ziegelmann, M., et al. Outcomes of a Novel Penile Traction Device in Men with Peyronie’s Disease: A Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled Trial. J Urol, 2019. 202: 599.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30916626/

1143.Moncada, I., et al. Penile traction therapy with the new device ‘Penimaster PRO’ is effective and safe in the stable phase of Peyronie’s disease: a controlled multicentre study. BJU Int, 2019.
123: 694.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30365247/

1144.Broderick, G.A., et al. The hemodynamics of vacuum constriction erections: assessment by color Doppler ultrasound. J Urol, 1992. 147: 57.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1729552/

1145.Paulis, G., et al. Long-term multimodal therapy (verapamil associated with propolis, blueberry, vitamin E and local diclofenac) on patients with Peyronie’s disease (chronic inflammation of the tunica albuginea). Results of a controlled study. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets, 2013. 12: 403.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24304332/

1146.Raheem, A.A., et al. The role of vacuum pump therapy to mechanically straighten the penis in Peyronie’s disease. BJU international, 2010. 106: 1178.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20438558/

1147.Avant, R.A., et al. Penile Traction Therapy and Vacuum Erection Devices in Peyronie’s Disease. Sexual medicine reviews, 2019. 7: 338.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29631979/

1148.Yafi, F.A., et al. The Effect of Duration of Penile Traction Therapy in Patients Undergoing Intralesional Injection Therapy for Peyronie’s Disease. J Urol, 2015. 194: 754.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25804087/

1149.Ziegelmann, M.J., et al. Clinical Experience With Penile Traction Therapy Among Men Undergoing Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum for Peyronie Disease. Urology, 2017. 104: 102.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28347795/

1150.Haney, N.M., et al. The Effect of Adjunct Mechanical Traction on Penile Length in Men Undergoing Primary Treatment for Peyronie’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Urology, 2018. 122: 110.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30099127/

1151.Matsushita, K., et al. Concordance between patient and physician assessment of the magnitude of Peyronie’s disease curvature. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 205.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24119178/

1152.Smith, J.F., et al. Peyronie’s disease: a critical appraisal of current diagnosis and treatment. Int
J Impot Res, 2008. 20: 445.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18650828/

1153.Kadioglu, A., et al. Current status of the surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. Nat Rev Urol, 2011. 8: 95.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21304544/

1154.Carson, C.C., et al. Outcomes of surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2014. 113: 704.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24219080/

1155.Taylor, F.L., et al. Surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease via tunica albuginea plication or partial plaque excision with pericardial graft: long-term follow up. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 2221.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18637996/

1156.Langston, J.P., et al. Peyronie disease: plication or grafting. Urol Clin North Am, 2011. 38: 207.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21621087/

1157.Mulhall, J., et al. A surgical algorithm for men with combined Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction: functional and satisfaction outcomes. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 132.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422916/

1158.Zaid, U.B., et al. Surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. Curr Urol Rep, 2014. 15: 446.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25118854/

1159.Garaffa, G., et al. Circumcision is not mandatory in penile surgery. BJU Int, 2010. 105: 222.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19594732/

1160.Adibi, M., et al. Penile plication without degloving enables effective correction of complex Peyronie’s deformities. Urology, 2012. 79: 831.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22365444/

1161.Clavell-Hernandez, J., et al. Penile Size Restoration With Nondegloving Approach for Peyronie’s Disease: Initial Experience. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1506.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30177471/

1162.Kendirci, M., et al. Critical analysis of surgery for Peyronie’s disease. Curr Opin Urol, 2004. 14: 381.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15626883/

1163.Nesbit, R.M. CONGENITAL CURVATURE OF THE PHALLUS: REPORT OF THREE CASES WITH DESCRIPTION OF CORRECTIVE OPERATION. J Urol, 1965. 93: 230.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14260875/

1164.Pryor, J.P., et al. A new approach to the correction of the penile deformity in Peyronie’s disease.
J Urol, 1979. 122: 622.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/501814/

1165.Ralph, D.J., et al. The Nesbit operation for Peyronie’s disease: 16-year experience. J Urol, 1995. 154: 1362.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7658538/

1166.Savoca, G., et al. Straightening corporoplasty for Peyronie’s disease: a review of 218 patients with median follow-up of 89 months. Eur Urol, 2004. 46: 610.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15474271/

1167.Syed, A.H., et al. Nesbit procedure for disabling Peyronie’s curvature: a median follow-up of
84 months. Urology, 2003. 61: 999.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12736023/

1168.Rolle, L., et al. The Nesbit operation for penile curvature: an easy and effective technical modification. J Urol, 2005. 173: 171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15592068/

1169.Pryor, J.P. Correction of penile curvature and Peyronie’s disease: why I prefer the Nesbit technique. Int J Impot Res, 1998. 10: 129.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9647952/

1170.Rehman, J., et al. Results of surgical treatment for abnormal penile curvature: Peyronie’s disease and congenital deviation by modified Nesbit plication (tunical shaving and plication). J Urol, 1997. 157: 1288.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9120923/

1171.Kuehhas, F.E., et al. Superficial tunica albuginea excision, using geometric principles, for the correction of congenital penile curvature. BJU Int, 2012. 110: E949.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22788740/

1172.Vicini, P., et al. Geometrical modified nesbit corporoplasty to correct different types of penile curvature: description of the surgical procedure based on geometrical principles and long-term results. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 209.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27511302/

1173.Schwarzer, J.U., et al. Tunica albuginea underlap--a new modification of the Nesbit procedure: description of the technique and preliminary results. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2970.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22925461/

1174.Cayan, S., et al. Comparison of Patient’s Satisfaction and Long-term Results of 2 Penile Plication Techniques: Lessons Learned From 387 Patients With Penile Curvature. Urology, 2019. 129: 106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30954611/

1175.Lemberger, R.J., et al. Nesbit’s operation for Peyronie’s disease. Br J Urol, 1984. 56: 721.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6534497/

1176.Sassine, A.M., et al. Modified corporoplasty for penile curvature: 10 years’ experience. Urology, 1994. 44: 419.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8073558/

1177.Daitch, J.A., et al. Modified corporoplasty for penile curvature: long-term results and patient satisfaction. J Urol, 1999. 162: 2006.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10569557/

1178.Licht, M.R., et al. Modified Nesbit procedure for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a comparative outcome analysis. J Urol, 1997. 158: 460.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9224323/

1179.Yachia, D. Modified corporoplasty for the treatment of penile curvature. J Urol, 1990. 143: 80.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2294269/

1180.Lopes, I., et al. Penile corporoplasty with Yachia’s technique for Peyronie’s disease: Single center experience with 117 patients. Urol Ann, 2013. 5: 167.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24049379/

1181.Nooter, R.I., et al. Peyronie’s disease and congenital penile curvature: long-term results of operative treatment with the plication procedure. Br J Urol, 1994. 74: 497.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7820430/

1182.Klevmark, B., et al. Congenital and acquired curvature of the penis treated surgically by plication of the tunica albuginea. Br J Urol, 1994. 74: 501.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7820431/

1183.Kummerling, S., et al. Peyronie’s disease. Investigation of staging, erectile failure and operative management. Int Urol Nephrol, 1995. 27: 629.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8775049/

1184.Thiounn, N., et al. Corporeal plication for surgical correction of penile curvature. Experience with 60 patients. Eur Urol, 1998. 33: 401.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9612685/

1185.Schultheiss, D., et al. Congenital and acquired penile deviation treated with the essed plication method. Eur Urol, 2000. 38: 167.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10895008/

1186.Chahal, R., et al. Corporal plication for penile curvature caused by Peyronie’s disease: the patients’ perspective. BJU Int, 2001. 87: 352.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11251529/

1187.Cormio, L., et al. Tunica albuginea plication for the correction of penile curvature. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 2002. 36: 307.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12201925/

1188.van der Drift, D.G., et al. The plication procedure for penile curvature: surgical outcome and postoperative sexual functioning. Urol Int, 2002. 69: 120.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12187042/

1189.Van Der Horst, C., et al. Treatment of penile curvature with Essed-Schroder tunical plication: aspects of quality of life from the patients’ perspective. BJU Int, 2004. 93: 105.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14678379/

1190.Geertsen, U.A., et al. Peyronie curvature treated by plication of the penile fasciae. Br J Urol, 1996. 77: 733.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8689121/

1191.Kim, D.H., et al. Subjective patient-reported experiences after surgery for Peyronie’s disease: corporeal plication versus plaque incision with vein graft. Urology, 2008. 71: 698.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18387398/

1192.Cantoro, U., et al. Penile plication for Peyronie’s disease: our results with mean follow-up of 103 months on 89 patients. Int J Impot Res, 2014. 26: 156.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24572996/

1193.Iacono, F., et al. Tunical plication in the management of penile curvature due La Peyronie’s disease. Our experience on 47 cases. BMC Surg, 2012. 12 Suppl 1: S25.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23173735/

1194.Kadirov, R., et al. Penile Plication With or Without Degloving of the Penis Results in Similar Outcomes. Sex Med, 2017. 5: e142.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28711404/

1195.Hudak, S.J., et al. Favorable patient reported outcomes after penile plication for wide array of peyronie disease abnormalities. J Urol, 2013. 189: 1019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23017514/

1196.Reddy, R.S., et al. Plication for Severe Peyronie’s Deformities Has Similar Long-Term Outcomes to Milder Cases. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1498.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30228083/

1197.Seveso, M., et al. Surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease via tunica albuginea plication: long-term follow-up. Andrology, 2018. 6: 47.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29195031/

1198.Gholami, S.S., et al. Correction of penile curvature using the 16-dot plication technique: a review of 132 patients. J Urol, 2002. 167: 2066.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11956440/

1199.Salem, E.A. Modified 16-Dot plication technique for correction of penile curvature: prevention of knot-related complications. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 117.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29736012/

1200.Ismail, H.R., et al. Non-tensile tunica albuginea plication for the correction of penile curvature. Afr J Urol, 2009. 15:88.

https://afju.springeropen.com/articles/10.1007/s12301-009-0019-2

1201.Dalkin, B.L., et al. Venogenic impotence following dermal graft repair for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1991. 146: 849.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1843616/

1202.Flores, S., et al. Erectile dysfunction after plaque incision and grafting: short-term assessment of incidence and predictors. J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 2031.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21595832/

1203.Devine, C.J., Jr., et al. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease with a dermal graff. J Urol, 1974. 111: 44.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4273261/

1204.Garcia-Gomez, B., et al. Grafts for Peyronie’s disease: a comprehensive review. Andrology, 2018.
6: 117.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29266877/

1205.Terrier, J.E., et al. Penile Sensory Changes After Plaque Incision and Grafting Surgery for Peyronie’s Disease. The J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30195564/

1206.Egydio, P.H., et al. A single relaxing incision to correct different types of penile curvature: surgical technique based on geometrical principles. BJU Int, 2004. 94: 1147.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15541152/

1207.De Rose, A.F., et al. Dermal graft surgery for Peyronie’s disease: Long term results at a 15 years follow-up. Arch Esp Urol, 2019. 72: 415.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31070138/

1208.Hicks, C.C., et al. Experience with the Horton-Devine dermal graft in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1978. 119: 504.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/349174/

1209.Wild, R.M., et al. Dermal graft repair of Peyronie’s disease: survey of 50 patients. J Urol, 1979. 121: 47.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/366185/

1210.Alferez-Villalobos, C., et al. [Surgery of Peyronie’s disease using a skin graft]. Actas Urol Esp, 1981. 5: 105.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7023198/

1211.Austoni, E., et al. [Radical surgery and conservation of erection in Peyronie’s disease]. Arch Ital Urol Androl, 1995. 67: 359.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8589753/

1212.Kondas, J., et al. Plaque excision and dermal graft in the surgical treatment of plastic induration of the penis (Peyronie’s disease). Int Urol Nephrol, 1998. 30: 321.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9696341/

1213.Chun, J.L., et al. A comparison of dermal and cadaveric pericardial grafts in the modified Horton-Devine procedure for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2001. 166: 185.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11435853/

1214.Irani, D., et al. Results of dermal patch graft in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Urol J, 2004. 1: 103.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17874395/

1215.Nikoobakht, M.R., et al. Management of Peyronie’s disease by dermal grafting. Urol J, 2004. 1: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17874394/

1216.Kovac, J.R., et al. Surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction after dermal, pericardial, and small intestinal submucosal grafting for Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 1500.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17433088/

1217.Goyal, N.K., et al. Experience with plaque excision and dermal grafting in the surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Singapore Med J, 2008. 49: 805.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18946615/

1218.Kim, E.D., et al. Long-term followup of treatment of Peyronie’s disease with plaque incision, carbon dioxide laser plaque ablation and placement of a deep dorsal vein patch graft. J Urol, 1995. 153: 1843.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7752331/

1219.El-Sakka, A.I., et al. Venous patch graft for Peyronie’s disease. Part II: outcome analysis. J Urol, 1998. 160: 2050.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9817321/

1220.Chalouhy, E., et al. Vein grafting of tunical incisions in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. J Med Liban, 1998. 46: 251.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10349258/

1221.Arena, F., et al. Peyronie’s disease--incision and dorsal vein grafting combined with contralateral plication in straightening the penis. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1999. 33: 181.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10452294/

1222.De Stefani, S., et al. Saphenous vein harvesting by ‘stripping’ technique and ‘W’-shaped patch covering after plaque incision in treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2000. 12: 299.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11416831/

1223.Akkus, E., et al. Incision and venous patch graft in the surgical treatment of penile curvature in Peyronie’s disease. Eur Urol, 2001. 40: 531.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11752861/

1224.Yurkanin, J.P., et al. Effect of incision and saphenous vein grafting for Peyronie’s disease on penile length and sexual satisfaction. J Urol, 2001. 166: 1769.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11586221/

1225.Adeniyi, A.A., et al. The Lue procedure: an analysis of the outcome in Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2002. 89: 404.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11872033/

1226.Metin, A., et al. Plaque incision and venous patch grafting for Peyronie’s disease. Int Urol Nephrol, 2002. 34: 223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12775100/

1227.Porena, M., et al. Peyronie’s disease: corporoplasty using saphenous vein patch graft. Urol Int, 2002. 68: 91.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11834897/

1228.Montorsi, F., et al. 1256: Five Year Followup of Plaque Incision and Vein Grafting for Peyronie’s Disease. J Urol, 2004. 171: 331.

https://www.auajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1016/S0022-5347%2818%2938481-7

1229.Kalsi, J., et al. The results of plaque incision and venous grafting (Lue procedure) to correct the penile deformity of Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2005. 95: 1029.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15839925/

1230.Hsu, G.L., et al. Long-term results of autologous venous grafts for penile morphological reconstruction. J Androl, 2007. 28: 186.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16988328/

1231.Kadioglu, A., et al. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a single center experience with 145 patients. Eur Urol, 2008. 53: 432.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17467161/

1232.Wimpissinger, F., et al. 10 Years’ Plaque Incision and Vein Grafting for Peyronie’s Disease: Does Time Matter? J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 120.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26755094/

1233.Kayigil, O., et al. The comparison of an acellular matrix graft with an autologous venous graft in the surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Andrologia, 2019. 51: e13168.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30298592/

1234.Teloken, C., et al. Penile straightening with crural graft of the corpus cavernosum. J Urol, 2000.
164: 107.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10840434/

1235.Da Ros, C.T., et al. Long-term follow-up of penile curvature correction utilizing autologous albugineal crural graft. Int Braz J Urol, 2012. 38: 242.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22555030/

1236.Schwarzer, J.U., et al. Penile corporoplasty using tunica albuginea free graft from proximal corpus cavernosum: a new technique for treatment of penile curvature in Peyronie’s disease. Eur Urol, 2003. 44: 720.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14644126/

1237.Das, S. Peyronie’s disease: excision and autografting with tunica vaginalis. J Urol, 1980. 124: 818.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7441830/

1238.O’Donnell, P.D. Results of surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1992. 148: 1184.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1404633/

1239.Helal, M.A., et al. Tunica vaginalis flap for the management of disabling Peyronie’s disease: surgical technique, results, and complications. Urology, 1995. 46: 390.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7660515/

1240.Yuanyuan, M., et al. Testicular tunica vaginalis patch grafting for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Cell Biochem Biophys, 2015. 71: 1117.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25486902/

1241.Liu, B., et al. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease with autologous tunica vaginalis of testis. BMC Urol, 2016. 16: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26762220/

1242.Shioshvili, T.J., et al. The surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease: replacement of plaque by free autograft of buccal mucosa. Eur Urol, 2005. 48: 129.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15967262/

1243.Liu, B., et al. [Replacement of plaque by buccal mucosa in the treatment of Peyronies disease: a report of 27 cases]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, 2009. 15: 45.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19288749/

1244.Cormio, L., et al. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease by plaque incision and grafting with buccal mucosa. Eur Urol, 2009. 55: 1469.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19084325/

1245.Salem, E.A., et al. Lingual mucosal graft in treatment of Peyronie disease. Urology, 2014. 84: 1374.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25283703/

1246.Zucchi, A., et al. Corporoplasty using buccal mucosa graft in Peyronie disease: is it a first choice? Urology, 2015. 85: 679.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25582815/

1247.Molina-Escudero, R., et al. Cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft for the surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Actas Urol Esp, 2016. 40: 328.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26874924/

1248.Fabiani, A., et al. Buccal mucosa is a promising graft in Peyronie’s disease surgery. Our experience and a brief literature review on autologous grafting materials. Arch Ital Urol Androl, 2016. 88: 115.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27377087/

1249.Collins, J.P. Experience with lyophilized human dura for treatment of Peyronie disease. Urology, 1988. 31: 379.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3363774/

1250.Sampaio, J.S., et al. Peyronie’s disease: surgical correction of 40 patients with relaxing incision and duramater graft. Eur Urol, 2002. 41: 551.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12074798/

1251.Leungwattanakij, S., et al. Long-term follow-up on use of pericardial graft in the surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2001. 13: 183.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11525318/

1252.Levine, L.A., et al. Human cadaveric pericardial graft for the surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2003. 170: 2359.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14634416/

1253.Kalsi, J.S., et al. Plaque incision and fascia lata grafting in the surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2006. 98: 110.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16831154/

1254.Gelbard, M.K., et al. Expanding contractures of the tunica albuginea due to Peyronie’s disease with temporalis fascia free grafts. J Urol, 1991. 145: 772.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2005698/

1255.Kargi, E., et al. Relaxation incision and fascia lata grafting in the surgical correction of penile curvature in Peyronie’s disease. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2004. 113: 254.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14707644/

1256.Voytik-Harbin, S.L., et al. Identification of extractable growth factors from small intestinal submucosa. J Cell Biochem, 1997. 67: 478.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9383707/

1257.Breyer, B.N., et al. Complications of porcine small intestine submucosa graft for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2007. 177: 589.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17222639/

1258.Knoll, L.D. Use of porcine small intestinal submucosal graft in the surgical management of tunical deficiencies with penile prosthetic surgery. Urology, 2002. 59: 758.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11992915/

1259.Lee, E.W., et al. Small intestinal submucosa for patch grafting after plaque incision in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Int Braz J Urol, 2008. 34: 191.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18462517/

1260.Staerman, F., et al. Medium-term follow-up of plaque incision and porcine small intestinal submucosal grafting for Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2010. 22: 343.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21124338/

1261.Chung, E., et al. Five-year follow-up of Peyronie’s graft surgery: outcomes and patient satisfaction.
J Sex Med, 2011. 8: 594.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21054805/

1262.Cosentino, M., et al. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease with small intestinal submucosa graft patch. Int J Impot Res, 2016. 28: 106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27030055/

1263.Morgado, A., et al. Penile lengthening with porcine small intestinal submucosa grafting in Peyronie’s disease treatment: long-term surgical outcomes, patients’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction predictors. Andrology, 2018. 6: 909.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30076677/

1264.Sayedahmed, K., et al. Bicentric prospective evaluation of corporoplasty with porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) in patients with severe Peyronie’s disease. World J Urol, 2017. 35: 1119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27864619/

1265.Valente, P., et al. Small Intestinal Submucosa Grafting for Peyronie Disease: Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction. Urology, 2017. 100: 117.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27825744/

1266.Sansalone, S., et al. Long-term results of the surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease with Egydio’s technique: a European multicentre study. Asian J Androl, 2011. 13: 842.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21743482/

1267.Egydio, P.H., et al. Treatment of Peyronie’s disease by incomplete circumferential incision of the tunica albuginea and plaque with bovine pericardium graft. Urology, 2002. 59: 570.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11927316/

1268.Otero, J.R., et al. Use of a lyophilized bovine pericardium graft to repair tunical defect in patients with Peyronie’s disease: experience in a clinical setting. Asian J Androl, 2017. 19: 316.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26806077/

1269.Silva-Garreton, A., et al. Satisfaction of patients with Peyronie’s disease after plaque surgery and bovine pericardium graft. Actas Urol Esp, 2017. 41: 103.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27468940/

1270.Hatzichristodoulou, G., et al. Surgical therapy of Peyronie’s disease by partial plaque excision and grafting with collagen fleece: feasibility study of a new technique. Int J Impot Res, 2013. 25: 183.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23446807/

1271.Lahme, S., et al. Collagen fleece for defect coverage following plaque excision in patients with Peyronie’s disease. Eur Urol, 2002. 41: 401.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12074811/

1272.Horstmann, M., et al. A self-reported long-term follow-up of patients operated with either shortening techniques or a TachoSil grafting procedure. Asian J Androl, 2011. 13: 326.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21240293/

1273.Hatzichristodoulou, G. Partial Plaque Excision and Grafting With Collagen Fleece in Peyronie Disease. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 277.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26953837/

1274.Hatzichristodoulou, G. Introducing the ventral sealing technique using collagen fleece for surgical therapy of patients with ventral Peyronie’s curvature: initial experience. Int J Impot Res, 2018. 30: 306.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29973699/

1275.Rosenhammer, B., et al. Long-term outcome after grafting with small intestinal submucosa and collagen fleece in patients with Peyronie’s disease: a matched pair analysis. Int J Impot Res, 2019. 31: 256.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30194372/

1276.Schiffman, Z.J., et al. Use of Dacron patch graft in Peyronie disease. Urology, 1985. 25: 38.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3155581/

1277.Faerber, G.J., et al. Results of combined Nesbit penile plication with plaque incision and placement of Dacron patch in patients with severe Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 1993. 149: 1319.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8479026/

1278.Ganabathi, K., et al. Peyronie’s disease: surgical treatment based on penile rigidity. J Urol, 1995. 153: 662.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7861510/

1279.Bokarica, P., et al. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease based on penile length and degree of curvature. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 170.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15215882/

1280.Rybak, J., et al. A retrospective comparative study of traction therapy vs. no traction following tunica albuginea plication or partial excision and grafting for Peyronie’s disease: measured lengths and patient perceptions. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2396.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22900621/

1281.Levine, L.A., et al. Erectile dysfunction following surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease and a pilot study of the use of sildenafil citrate rehabilitation for postoperative erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 241.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422892/

1282.Fiorillo, A., et al. Long-term outcomes after plaque incision and grafting for Peyronie’s disease: comparison of porcine dermal and bovine pericardium grafts. Andrology, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32981219/

1283.Fernández-Pascual, E., et al. Multicenter Prospective Study of Grafting With Collagen Fleece TachoSil in Patients With Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 2279.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32830078/

1284.Habous, M., et al. Malleable Penile Implant Is an Effective Therapeutic Option in Men With Peyronie’s Disease and Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med, 2018. 6: 24.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29336942/

1285.Yavuz, U., et al. Surgical Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction and Peyronie’s Disease Using Malleable Prosthesis. Urol J, 2015. 12: 2428.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26706740/

1286.Chung, E., et al. Comparison between AMS 700 CX and Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis for Peyronie’s disease treatment and remodeling: clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 2855.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23210973/

1287.Levine, L.A., et al. A surgical algorithm for penile prosthesis placement in men with erectile failure and Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res, 2000. 12: 147.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11045907/

1288.Wilson, S.K., et al. A new treatment for Peyronie’s disease: modeling the penis over an inflatable penile prosthesis. J Urol, 1994. 152: 1121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8072079/

1289.Wilson, S.K. Surgical techniques: modeling technique for penile curvature. J Sex Med, 2007. 4: 231.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17233788/

1290.Djordjevic, M.L., et al. Penile prosthesis implantation and tunica albuginea incision without grafting in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease with erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl, 2013. 15: 391.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23435473/

1291.Cormio, L., et al. Long-term results of combined tunica albuginea plication and penile prosthesis implantation for severe penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. Case Rep Urol, 2014. 2014: 818623.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24790766/

1292.Rahman, N.U., et al. Combined penile plication surgery and insertion of penile prosthesis for severe penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. J Urol, 2004. 171: 2346.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15126818/

1293.Garaffa, G., et al. The management of residual curvature after penile prosthesis implantation in men with Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int, 2011. 108: 1152.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21314814/

1294.Mulcahy, J.J., et al. Tunica wedge excision to correct penile curvature associated with the inflatable penile prosthesis. J Urol, 1987. 138: 63.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3599221/

1295.Chung, P.H., et al. High patient satisfaction of inflatable penile prosthesis insertion with synchronous penile plication for erectile dysfunction and Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 1593.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24708140/

1296.Falcone, M., et al. A Comparative Study Between 2 Different Grafts Used as Patches After Plaque Incision and Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Implantation for End-Stage Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 848.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29753801/

1297.Rolle, L., et al. A new, innovative, lengthening surgical procedure for Peyronie’s disease by penile prosthesis implantation with double dorsal-ventral patch graft: the “sliding technique”. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 2389.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22429331/

1298.Egydio, P.H., et al. Penile lengthening and widening without grafting according to a modified ‘sliding’ technique. BJU Int, 2015. 116: 965.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25644141/

1299.Egydio, P.H., et al. The Multiple-Slit Technique (MUST) for Penile Length and Girth Restoration.
J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 261.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29275049/

1300.Fernandez-Pascual, E., et al. Surgical Technique for Complex Cases of Peyronie’s Disease With Implantation of Penile Prosthesis, Multiple Corporeal Incisions, and Grafting With Collagen Fleece.
J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 323.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30770074/

1301.Rolle, L., et al. A prospective multicentric international study on the surgical outcomes and patients’ satisfaction rates of the ‘sliding’ technique for end-stage Peyronie’s disease with severe shortening of the penis and erectile dysfunction. BJU Int, 2016. 117: 814.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26688436/

1302.Khera, M., et al. Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Patients With Peyronie’s Disease: Results of the PROPPER Study Demonstrates a Decrease in Patient-Reported Depression. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 786.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29653913/

1303.Akin-Olugbade, O., et al. Determinants of patient satisfaction following penile prosthesis surgery.
J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 743.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16839332/

1304.Broderick, G.A., et al. Priapism: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management. J Sex Med, 2010.
7: 476.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20092449/

1305.Berger, R., et al. Report of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease (AFUD) Thought Leader Panel for evaluation and treatment of priapism. Int J Impot Res, 2001. 13 Suppl 5: S39.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11781746/

1306.von Stempel, C., et al. Mean velocity and peak systolic velocity can help determine ischaemic and non-ischaemic priapism. Clin Radiol, 2017. 72: 611.e9.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28351471/

1307.Muneer, A., et al. Investigation of cavernosal smooth muscle dysfunction in low flow priapism using an in vitro model. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15071490/

1308.Vreugdenhil, S., et al. Ischemic priapism as a model of exhausted metabolism. Physiol Rep, 2019.
7: e13999.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30916476/

1309.El-Bahnasawy, M.S., et al. Low-flow priapism: risk factors for erectile dysfunction. BJU Int, 2002. 89: 285.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11856112/

1310.Spycher, M.A., et al. The ultrastructure of the erectile tissue in priapism. J Urol, 1986. 135: 142.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3941454/

1311.Zacharakis, E., et al. Penile prosthesis insertion in patients with refractory ischaemic priapism: early vs delayed implantation. BJU Int, 2014. 114: 576.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25383397/

1312.Levine, L.A., et al. Experience with intraplaque injection of verapamil for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol, 2002. 168: 621.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12131321/

1313.Costa, W.S., et al. Structural analysis of the corpora cavernosa in patients with ischaemic priapism. BJU Int, 2010. 105: 838.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19751255/

1314.Pohl, J., et al. Priapism: a three-phase concept of management according to aetiology and prognosis. Br J Urol, 1986. 58: 113.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3516294/

1315.Junemann, K.P., et al. Pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. Semin Urol, 1990. 8: 80.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2191403/

1316.Porst, H. The rationale for prostaglandin E1 in erectile failure: a survey of worldwide experience.
J Urol, 1996. 155: 802.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8583582/

1317.Kilic, M., et al. The actual incidence of papaverine-induced priapism in patients with erectile dysfunction following penile colour Doppler ultrasonography. Andrologia, 2010. 42: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20078509/

1318.Nelson, J.H., 3rd, et al. Priapism: evolution of management in 48 patients in a 22-year series. J Urol, 1977. 117: 455.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15137/

1319.Rezaee, M.E., et al. Are We Overstating the Risk of Priapism With Oral Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors? J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 1579.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32622767/

1320.Ateyah, A., et al. Intracavernosal irrigation by cold saline as a simple method of treating iatrogenic prolonged erection. J Sex Med, 2005. 2: 248.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16422893/

1321.Bivalacqua, T.J., et al. New insights into the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease-associated priapism. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 79.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21554553/

1322.Lagoda, G., et al. Molecular analysis of erection regulatory factors in sickle cell disease associated priapism in the human penis. J Urol, 2013. 189: 762.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22982429/

1323.Musicki, B., et al. Mechanisms underlying priapism in sickle cell disease: targeting and key innovations on the preclinical landscape. Expert Opin Ther Targets, 2020. 24: 439.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32191546/

1324.Morrison, B.F., et al. Is testosterone deficiency a possible risk factor for priapism associated with sickle-cell disease? Int Urol Nephrol, 2015. 47: 47.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25371242/

1325.Alwaal, A., et al. Future prospects in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: focus on avanafil. Drug Des Devel Ther, 2011. 5: 435.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22087063/

1326.James Johnson, M., et al. Which patients with ischaemic priapism require further investigation for malignancy? Int J Impot Res, 2020. 32: 195.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30996267/

1327.Kropman, R.F., et al. Hematoma or “partial priapism” in the proximal part of the corpus cavernosum. J Sex Med, 2014. 11: 2618.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24308665/

1328.Weyne, E., et al. Idiopathic Partial Thrombosis (IPT) of the Corpus Cavernosum: A Hypothesis-Generating Case Series and Review of the Literature. J Sex Med, 2015.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26553854/

1329.Burnett, A.L., et al. Priapism: new concepts in medical and surgical management. Urol Clin North Am, 2011. 38: 185.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21621085/

1330.Broderick, G.A. Priapism and sickle-cell anemia: diagnosis and nonsurgical therapy. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 88.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21699659/

1331.Emond, A.M., et al. Priapism and impotence in homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch Intern Med, 1980. 140: 1434.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6159833/

1332.Cintho Ozahata, M., et al. Clinical and Genetic Predictors of Priapism in Sickle Cell Disease: Results from the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study III Brazil Cohort Study. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1988.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31668730/

1333.Bertolotto, M., et al. Color Doppler imaging of posttraumatic priapism before and after selective embolization. Radiographics, 2003. 23: 495.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12640162/

1334.Bertolotto, M., et al. Color Doppler appearance of penile cavernosal-spongiosal communications in patients with high-flow priapism. Acta Radiol, 2008. 49: 710.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18568565/

1335.Hakim, L.S., et al. Evolving concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of arterial high flow priapism.
J Urol, 1996. 155: 541.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8558656/

1336.Ralph, D.J., et al. The use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in the management of patients presenting with priapism. BJU Int, 2010. 106: 1714.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20438564/

1337.Bastuba, M.D., et al. Arterial priapism: diagnosis, treatment and long-term followup. J Urol, 1994. 151: 1231.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8158765/

1338.Bansal, A.R., et al. Cold saline enema in priapism--a useful tool for underprivileged. Trop Doct, 2004. 34: 227.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15510950/

1339.Hoyerup, P., et al. Partial priapism. BMJ Case Rep, 2013. 2013.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23933863/

1340.Burnett, A.L., et al. Standard operating procedures for priapism. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 180.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22462660/

1341.Montague, D.K., et al. American Urological Association guideline on the management of priapism.
J Urol, 2003. 170: 1318.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14501756/

1342.Bodner, D.R., et al. The application of intracavernous injection of vasoactive medications for erection in men with spinal cord injury. J Urol, 1987. 138: 310.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3599245/

1343.Davila, H.H., et al. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as complication of phenylephrine injection for the treatment of ischemic priapism in a sickle cell disease patient. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1025.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18194188/

1344.Mantadakis, E., et al. Outpatient penile aspiration and epinephrine irrigation for young patients with sickle cell anemia and prolonged priapism. Blood, 2000. 95: 78.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10607688/

1345.Miller, S.F., et al. Posttraumatic arterial priapism in children: management with embolization. Radiology, 1995. 196: 59.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7784590/

1346.Wen, C.C., et al. Management of ischemic priapism with high-dose intracavernosal phenylephrine: from bench to bedside. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 918.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16942536/

1347.Muneer, A., et al. Investigating the effects of high-dose phenylephrine in the management of prolonged ischaemic priapism. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 2152.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18466270/

1348.Muruve, N., et al. Intracorporeal phenylephrine in the treatment of priapism. J Urol, 1996. 155: 141.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7490814/

1349.Roberts, J.R., et al. Intracavernous epinephrine: a minimally invasive treatment for priapism in the emergency department. J Emerg Med, 2009. 36: 285.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18996674/

1350.Keskin, D., et al. Intracavernosal adrenalin injection in priapism. Int J Impot Res, 2000. 12: 312.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11416834/

1351.Lee, M., et al. Chart for preparation of dilutions of alpha-adrenergic agonists for intracavernous use in treatment of priapism. J Urol, 1995. 153: 1182.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7869493/

1352.Dittrich, A., et al. Treatment of pharmacological priapism with phenylephrine. J Urol, 1991. 146: 323.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1856926/

1353.Ridyard, D.G., et al. Use of High-Dose Phenylephrine in the Treatment of Ischemic Priapism: Five-Year Experience at a Single Institution. J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1704.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27692841/

1354.Sidhu, A.S., et al. The Hemodynamic Effects of Intracavernosal Phenylephrine for the Treatment of Ischemic Priapism. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 990.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29960632/

1355.Levey, H.R., et al. Medical management of ischemic stuttering priapism: a contemporary review of the literature. Asian J Androl, 2012. 14: 156.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22057380/

1356.Roberts, J., et al. Adrenergic crisis after penile epinephrine injection for priapism. J Emerg Med, 2009. 36: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18353597/

1357.Palagiri, R.D.R., et al. A Case Report of Hypertensive Emergency and Intracranial Hemorrhage Due to Intracavernosal Phenylephrine. Hosp Pharm, 2019. 54: 186.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31205330/

1358.Fenwick, M.J., et al. Anaphylaxis and monoamine oxidase inhibitors--the use of adrenaline. J Accid Emerg Med, 2000. 17: 143.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10718244/

1359.Saffon Cuartas, J.P., et al. Treatment of Priapism Secondary to Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction. Adv Urol, 2019. 2019: 6214921.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31534452/

1360.Serrate, R.G., et al. The usefulness of ethylephrine (Efortil-R) in the treatment of priapism and intraoperative penile erections. Int Urol Nephrol, 1992. 24: 389.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1281144/

1361.Hubler, J., et al. Methylene blue as a means of treatment for priapism caused by intracavernous injection to combat erectile dysfunction. Int Urol Nephrol, 2003. 35: 519.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15198160/

1362.Martinez Portillo, F., et al. Methylene blue as a successful treatment alternative for pharmacologically induced priapism. Eur Urol, 2001. 39: 20.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11173934/

1363.van Driel, M.F., et al. Treatment of priapism by injection of adrenaline into the corpora cavernosa penis. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1991. 25: 251.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1780699/

1364.Gupta, A., et al. Successful use of terbutaline in persistent priapism in a 12-year-old boy with chronic myeloid leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2009. 26: 70.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19206011/

1365.Lowe, F.C., et al. Placebo-controlled study of oral terbutaline and pseudoephedrine in management of prostaglandin E1-induced prolonged erections. Urology, 1993. 42: 51.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8392235/

1366.Priyadarshi, S. Oral terbutaline in the management of pharmacologically induced prolonged erection. Int J Impot Res, 2004. 16: 424.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14999218/

1367.Habous, M., et al. Noninvasive treatments for iatrogenic priapism: Do they really work? A prospective multicenter study. Urol Ann, 2016. 8: 193.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27141191/

1368.Ramstein, J.J., et al. Clinical Outcomes of Periprocedural Antithrombotic Therapy in Ischemic Priapism Management. J Sex Med, 2020. 17: 2260.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32800740/

1369.Bartolucci, P., et al. Clinical management of adult sickle-cell disease. Curr Opin Hematol, 2012.
19: 149.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22357165/

1370.Rogers, Z.R. Priapism in sickle cell disease. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am, 2005. 19: 917.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16214652/

1371.Morrison, B.F., et al. Priapism in hematological and coagulative disorders: an update. Nat Rev Urol, 2011. 8: 223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21403660/

1372.Ballas, S.K., et al. Safety and efficacy of blood exchange transfusion for priapism complicating sickle cell disease. J Clin Apher, 2016. 31: 5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25809639/

1373.Marouf, R. Blood transfusion in sickle cell disease. Hemoglobin, 2011. 35: 495.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21981466/

1374.Merritt, A.L., et al. Myth: blood transfusion is effective for sickle cell anemia-associated priapism. CJEM, 2006. 8: 119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17175874/

1375.Howard, J., et al. The Transfusion Alternatives Preoperatively in Sickle Cell Disease (TAPS) study: a randomised, controlled, multicentre clinical trial. Lancet, 2013. 381: 930.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23352054/

1376.Johnson, M.J., et al. The surgical management of ischaemic priapism. Int J Impot Res, 2020. 32: 81.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31570823/

1377.Lue, T.F., et al. Distal cavernosum-glans shunts for ischemic priapism. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 749.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16839333/

1378.Burnett, A.L. Surgical management of ischemic priapism. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22221308/

1379.Bennett, N., et al. Sickle cell disease status and outcomes of African-American men presenting with priapism. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 1244.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18312286/

1380.Nixon, R.G., et al. Efficacy of shunt surgery for refractory low flow priapism: a report on the incidence of failed detumescence and erectile dysfunction. J Urol, 2003. 170: 883.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12913722/

1381.Ortaç, M., et al. Anatomic and Functional Outcome Following Distal Shunt and Tunneling for Treatment İschemic Priapism: A Single-Center Experience. J Sex Med, 2019. 16: 1290.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31230939/

1382.Yücel Ö, B., et al. Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Priapism. Sex Med Rev, 2018. 6: 310.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28916463/

1383.Zacharakis, E., et al. The efficacy of the T-shunt procedure and intracavernous tunneling (snake maneuver) for refractory ischemic priapism. J Urol, 2014. 191: 164.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23892191/

1384.Winter, C.C. Cure of idiopathic priapism: new procedure for creating fistula between glans penis and corpora cavernosa. Urology, 1976. 8: 389.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/973296/

1385.Macaluso, J.N., Jr., et al. Priapism: review of 34 cases. Urology, 1985. 26: 233.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4035837/

1386.Ebbehoj, J. A new operation for priapism. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg, 1974. 8: 241.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4458048/

1387.Lund, K., et al. Results of glando-cavernous anastomosis in 18 cases of priapism. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg, 1980. 14: 269.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7209413/

1388.Brant, W.O., et al. T-shaped shunt and intracavernous tunneling for prolonged ischemic priapism.
J Urol, 2009. 181: 1699.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19233430/

1389.Ercole, C.J., et al. Changing surgical concepts in the treatment of priapism. J Urol, 1981. 125: 210.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7206057/

1390.Hanafy, H.M., et al. Ancient Egyptian medicine: contribution to urology. Urology, 1974. 4: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21323001/

1391.Juskiewenski, S., et al. A study of the arterial blood supply to the penis. Anatomia Clinica, 1982.
4: 101.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01800618

1392.Burnett, A.L., et al. Corporal “snake” maneuver: corporoglanular shunt surgical modification for ischemic priapism. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 1171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19207268/

1393.Segal, R.L., et al. Corporal Burnett “Snake” surgical maneuver for the treatment of ischemic priapism: long-term followup. J Urol, 2013. 189: 1025.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23017524/

1394.Quackels, R. [TREATMENT OF A CASE OF PRIAPISM BY CAVERNOSPONGIOUS ANASTOMOSIS]. Acta Urol Belg, 1964. 32: 5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14111379/

1395.Baumgarten, A.S., et al. Favourable multi-institutional experience with penoscrotal decompression for prolonged ischaemic priapism. BJU Int, 2020. 126: 441.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32501654/

1396.Grayhack, J.T., et al. VENOUS BYPASS TO CONTROL PRIAPISM. Invest Urol, 1964. 1: 509.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14130594/

1397.Kandel, G.L., et al. Pulmonary embolism: a complication of corpus-saphenous shunt for priapism.
J Urol, 1968. 99: 196.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/5641077/

1398.Kihl, B., et al. Priapsim: evaluation of treatment with special reference to saphenocavernous shunting in 26 patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1980. 14: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7375831/

1399.Ralph, D.J., et al. The immediate insertion of a penile prosthesis for acute ischaemic priapism. Eur Urol, 2009. 56: 1033.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18930579/

1400.Salem, E.A., et al. Management of ischemic priapism by penile prosthesis insertion: prevention of distal erosion. J Urol, 2010. 183: 2300.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20400140/

1401.Sedigh, O., et al. Early insertion of inflatable prosthesis for intractable ischemic priapism: our experience and review of the literature. Int J Impot Res, 2011. 23: 158.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21654814/

1402.Upadhyay, J., et al. Penile implant for intractable priapism associated with sickle cell disease. Urology, 1998. 51: 638.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9586621/

1403.Zacharakis, E., et al. Early insertion of a malleable penile prosthesis in ischaemic priapism allows later upsizing of the cylinders. Scan J Urol, 2015. 49: 468.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26116193/

1404.Bella, A., et al. 1859 3-piece inflatable penile prosthesis insertion post T-shunt for priapism with dilation/corporal snake maneuver and comparison to post Al-Ghorab shunt IPP outcomes. J Urol, 2012. 187: e751.

https://university.auanet.org/abstract_detail.cfm?id=1859&amp;meetingID=12ATL

1405.Tsambarlis, P.N., et al. Successful Placement of Penile Prostheses in Men With Severe Corporal Fibrosis Following Vacuum Therapy Protocol. J Sex Med, 2017. 14: 44.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27938991/

1406.Burnett, A.L., et al. Evaluation of erectile function in men with sickle cell disease. Urology, 1995.
45: 657.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7716848/

1407.Datta, N.S. Megalophallus in sickle cell disease. J Urol, 1977. 117: 672.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/859210/

1408.Broderick, G.A., et al. Pharmacologic erection: time-dependent changes in the corporal environment. Int J Impot Res, 1994. 6: 9.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8019618/

1409.Monga, M., et al. Priapism in sickle cell disease: the case for early implantation of the penile prosthesis. Eur Urol, 1996. 30: 54.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8854068/

1410.Adeyoju, A.B., et al. Priapism in sickle-cell disease; incidence, risk factors and complications - an international multicentre study. BJU Int, 2002. 90: 898.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12460353/

1411.Virag, R., et al. Preventive treatment of priapism in sickle cell disease with oral and self-administered intracavernous injection of etilefrine. Urology, 1996. 47: 777.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8650886/

1412.Fowler, J.E., Jr., et al. Priapism associated with the sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: prevalence, natural history and sequelae. J Urol, 1991. 145: 65.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1984102/

1413.Mantadakis, E., et al. Prevalence of priapism in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 1999. 21: 518.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10598664/

1414.Morrison, B.F., et al. Stuttering priapism: insights into pathogenesis and management. Curr Urol Rep, 2012. 13: 268.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22648304/

1415.Roizenblatt, M., et al. Priapism is associated with sleep hypoxemia in sickle cell disease. J Urol, 2012. 188: 1245.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22902014/

1416.Champion, H.C., et al. Phosphodiesterase-5A dysregulation in penile erectile tissue is a mechanism of priapism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005. 102: 1661.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15668387/

1417.Bivalacqua, T.J., et al. Attenuated RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in penis of transgenic sickle cell mice. Urology, 2010. 76: 510.e7.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20538321/

1418.Phatarpekar, P.V., et al. Role of adenosine signaling in penile erection and erectile disorders. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 3553.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19889148/

1419.Traish, A.M., et al. Are androgens critical for penile erections in humans? Examining the clinical and preclinical evidence. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 382.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16681465/

1420.Morelli, A., et al. Androgens regulate phosphodiesterase type 5 expression and functional activity in corpora cavernosa. Endocrinology, 2004. 145: 2253.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14764637/

1421.Liguori, G., et al. The management of stuttering priapism. Minerva Urol Nefrol, 2020. 72: 173.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30957473/

1422.Idris, I.M., et al. Men with sickle cell disease experience greater sexual dysfunction when compared with men without sickle cell disease. Blood Adv, 2020. 4: 3277.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32702096/

1423.Mocniak, M., et al. The use of sudafed for priapism in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease.
J Pediatr Nurs, 2012. 27: 82.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22041221/

1424.Gbadoe, A.D., et al. Management of sickle cell priapism with etilefrine. Arch Dis Child, 2001. 85: 52.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11420201/

1425.Okpala, I., et al. Etilefrine for the prevention of priapism in adult sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol, 2002. 118: 918.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12181066/

1426.Olujohungbe, A.B., et al. A prospective diary study of stuttering priapism in adolescents and young men with sickle cell anemia: report of an international randomized control trial--the priapism in sickle cell study. J Androl, 2011. 32: 375.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21127308/

1427.Yuan, J., et al. Insights of priapism mechanism and rationale treatment for recurrent priapism. Asian J Androl, 2008. 10: 88.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18087648/

1428.Levine, L.A., et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in the treatment of sickle cell anemia-associated priapism. J Urol, 1993. 150: 475.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8326584/

1429.Alshahrani, A. Using cyproterone acetate to treat recurrent ischemic priapism in a patient with sickle cell anemia as a comorbidity: a case report. J Med Case Rep, 2020. 14: 197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33081822/

1430.Rachid-Filho, D., et al. Treatment of recurrent priapism in sickle cell anemia with finasteride: a new approach. Urology, 2009. 74: 1054.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19616292/

1431.Baker, R.C., et al. Dutasteride in the long-term management of stuttering priapism. Transl Androl Urol, 2020. 9: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32055472/

1432.DeCastro, B.J., et al. Oral ketoconazole for prevention of postoperative penile erection: a placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. J Urol, 2008. 179: 1930.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18353393/

1433.Gupta, S., et al. A possible mechanism for alteration of human erectile function by digoxin: inhibition of corpus cavernosum sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity. J Urol, 1998. 159: 1529.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9554348/

1434.Daoud, A.S., et al. The effect of Vigabatrin, Lamotrigine and Gabapentin on the fertility, weights, sex hormones and biochemical profiles of male rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 2004. 25: 178.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15349082/

1435.Perimenis, P., et al. Gabapentin in the management of the recurrent, refractory, idiopathic priapism. Int J Impot Res, 2004. 16: 84.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14963477/

1436.D’Aleo, G., et al. Favorable response to intrathecal, but not oral, baclofen of priapism in a patient with spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 2009. 34: E127.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19179913/

1437.Moreira, D.M., et al. Recurrent priapism in the young patient treated with baclofen. J Pediatr Urol, 2006. 2: 590.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18947688/

1438.Vaidyanathan, S., et al. Management of recurrent priapism in a cervical spinal cord injury patient with oral baclofen therapy. Spinal Cord, 2004. 42: 134.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14765150/

1439.Kato, G.J. Priapism in sickle-cell disease: a hematologist’s perspective. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 70.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21554552/

1440.Meier, E.R., et al. Sickle cell disease in children. Drugs, 2012. 72: 895.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22519940/

1441.Saad, S.T., et al. Follow-up of sickle cell disease patients with priapism treated by hydroxyurea. Am J Hematol, 2004. 77: 45.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15307105/

1442.Bivalacqua, T.J., et al. Establishment of a transgenic sickle-cell mouse model to study the pathophysiology of priapism. J Sex Med, 2009. 6: 2494.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19523035/

1443.Burnett, A.L., et al. Long-term oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor therapy alleviates recurrent priapism. Urology, 2006. 67: 1043.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16698365/

1444.Burnett, A.L., et al. Feasibility of the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in a pharmacologic prevention program for recurrent priapism. J Sex Med, 2006. 3: 1077.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17100941/

1445.Pierorazio, P.M., et al. Daily phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy as rescue for recurrent ischemic priapism after failed androgen ablation. J Androl, 2011. 32: 371.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21127306/

1446.Hou, L.T., et al. Regimented Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Use Reduces Emergency Department Visits for Recurrent Ischemic Priapism. J Urol, 2020: 101097ju0000000000001365.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32915079/

1447.Rutchik, S., et al. Successful treatment of recalcitrant priapism using intercorporeal injection of tissue plasminogen activator. J Urol, 2001. 166: 628.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11458096/

1448.Welliver, R.C., Jr., et al. Autoinflation leading to failure of two-piece ambicor implantable penile prosthesis: an outcome from a methodical treatment of recalcitrant stuttering priapism. Case Rep Urol, 2014. 2014: 529037.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24864222/

1449.Anele, U.A., et al. How I treat priapism. Blood, 2015. 125: 3551.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25810489/

1450.Burnett, A.L., et al. Priapism: current principles and practice. Urol Clin North Am, 2007. 34: 631.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17983902/

1451.Jesus, L.E., et al. Priapism in children: review of pathophysiology and treatment. J Pediatr (Rio J), 2009. 85: 194.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19455267/

1452.Donaldson, J.F., et al. Priapism in children: a comprehensive review and clinical guideline. J Pediatr Urol, 2014. 10: 11.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24135215/

1453.Hatzichristou, D., et al. Management strategy for arterial priapism: therapeutic dilemmas. J Urol, 2002. 168: 2074.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12394712/

1454.Witt, M.A., et al. Traumatic laceration of intracavernosal arteries: the pathophysiology of nonischemic, high flow, arterial priapism. J Urol, 1990. 143: 129.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2294241/

1455.Kuefer, R., et al. Changing diagnostic and therapeutic concepts in high-flow priapism. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 109.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15229624/

1456.Steers, W.D., et al. Use of methylene blue and selective embolization of the pudendal artery for high flow priapism refractory to medical and surgical treatments. J Urol, 1991. 146: 1361.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1942293/

1457.Ricciardi, R., Jr., et al. Delayed high flow priapism: pathophysiology and management. J Urol, 1993. 149: 119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8417190/

1458.Ingram, A.R., et al. An Update on Non-Ischemic Priapism. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 140.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30987934/

1459.Hudnall, M., et al. Advances in the understanding of priapism. Transl Androl Urol, 2017. 6: 199.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28540227/

1460.Todd, N.V. Priapism in acute spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 2011. 49: 1033.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21647168/

1461.Karagiannis, A.A., et al. High flow priapism secondary to internal urethrotomy treated with embolization. J Urol, 2004. 171: 1631.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15017242/

1462.Liguori, G., et al. High-flow priapism (HFP) secondary to Nesbit operation: management by percutaneous embolization and colour Doppler-guided compression. Int J Impot Res, 2005. 17: 304.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15690066/

1463.Tang, M., et al. Intracavernosal metaraminol bitartrate for treatment of priapism resulting from circumcision: a case report. Springerplus, 2016. 5: 436.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27104124/

1464.Boscolo-Berto, R., et al. Determinism and liabilities in a complicated transrectal prostate biopsy: what is what. Urologia, 2011. 78: 176.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21786228/

1465.Oshima, J., et al. [Nonischemic Priapism Following Brachytherapy : A Case Report and a Review]. Hinyokika Kiyo, 2016. 62: 605.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27919141/

1466.Lutz, A., et al. Conversion of low-flow to high-flow priapism: a case report and review (CME). J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 951.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22462585/

1467.McMahon, C.G. High flow priapism due to an arterial-lacunar fistula complicating initial veno-occlusive priapism. Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14: 195.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12058247/

1468.Vagnoni, V., et al. High-flow priapism after T-shunt and tunneling in a patient with ischemic priapism. Turk J Urol, 2020. 46: 488.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32966205/

1469.Ramos, C.E., et al. High flow priapism associated with sickle cell disease. J Urol, 1995. 153: 1619.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7714988/

1470.Dubocq, F.M., et al. High flow malignant priapism with isolated metastasis to the corpora cavernosa. Urology, 1998. 51: 324.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9495721/

1471.Inamoto, T., et al. A rare case of penile metastasis of testicular cancer presented with priapism. Hinyokika Kiyo, 2005. 51: 639.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16229380/

1472.Bertolotto, M., et al. Sonography of the penis/erectile dysfunction. Abdom Radiol (NY), 2020. 45: 1973.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32285181/

1473.Jung, D.C., et al. Penile Doppler ultrasonography revisited. Ultrasonography, 2018. 37: 16.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28736428/

1474.Abdulsattar, O.A., et al. The Role of Color Doppler Ultrasound in Initial Evaluation of Patients with Priapism: A Cross Sectional Study. Indian J Public Health Res Develop, 2019. 10: 1102.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331253501

1475.Kang, B.C., et al. Post-traumatic arterial priapism: colour Doppler examination and superselective arterial embolization. Clin Radiol, 1998. 53: 830.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9833787/

1476.Kolbenstvedt, A., et al. Arterial high flow priapism role of radiology in diagnosis and treatment. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl, 1996. 179: 143.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8908681/

1477.Eracleous, E., et al. Use of Doppler ultrasound and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in the diagnosis and follow-up of post-traumatic high-flow priapism in a child. Pediatr Radiol, 2000. 30: 265.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10789908/

1478.Zacharakis, E., et al. 1541 Distal corpus cavernosum smooth muscle fibrosis due t non-ischaemic priapism- should embolisation be performed earlier? J Urol, 2011. 185: e619.

https://www.auajournals.org/doi/full/10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.1536

1479.Muneer, A., et al. BAUS consensus document for the management of male genital emergencies: priapism. BJU Int, 2018. 121: 835.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29357203/

1480.Arango, O., et al. Complete resolution of post-traumatic high-flow priapism with conservative treatment. Int J Impot Res, 1999. 11: 115.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10356672/

1481.Ilkay, A.K., et al. Conservative management of high-flow priapism. Urology, 1995. 46: 419.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7660524/

1482.Mwamukonda, K.B., et al. Androgen blockade for the treatment of high-flow priapism. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2532.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20456623/

1483.Cakan, M., et al. Is the combination of superselective transcatheter autologous clot embolization and duplex sonography-guided compression therapy useful treatment option for the patients with high-flow priapism? Int J Impot Res, 2006. 18: 141.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16079900/

1484.Kim, K.R., et al. Treatment of high-flow priapism with superselective transcatheter embolization in 27 patients: a multicenter study. J Vasc Interv Radiol, 2007. 18: 1222.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17911511/

1485.Numan, F., et al. Posttraumatic nonischemic priapism treated with autologous blood clot embolization. J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 173.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18173765/

1486.Gorich, J., et al. Interventional treatment of traumatic priapism. J Endovasc Ther, 2002. 9: 614.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12431145/

1487.Kerlan, R.K., Jr., et al. Superselective microcoil embolization in the management of high-flow priapism. J Vasc Interv Radiol, 1998. 9: 85.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9468400/

1488.Liu, B.X., et al. High-flow priapism: superselective cavernous artery embolization with microcoils. Urology, 2008. 72: 571.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18619653/

1489.Numan, F., et al. Posttraumatic high-flow priapism treated by N-butyl-cyanoacrylate embolization. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol, 1996. 19: 278.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8755084/

1490.Sandock, D.S., et al. Perineal abscess after embolization for high-flow priapism. Urology, 1996.
48: 308.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8753749/

1491.Shapiro, R.H., et al. Post-traumatic priapism treated with selective cavernosal artery ligation. Urology, 1997. 49: 638.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9111644/

1492.De Rose, A.F., et al. Cycling Trauma as a Cause of Arterial Priapism in Children and Teenagers. Rev Urol, 2017. 19: 273.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29472833/

1493.Hacker, H.W., et al. Nonischemic Priapism in Childhood: A Case Series and Review of Literature. Eur J Pediatr Surg, 2018. 28: 255.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28346955/

1494.Corbetta, J.P., et al. High flow priapism: diagnosis and treatment in pediatric population. Pediatr Surg Int, 2011. 27: 1217.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21544645/

1495.Nabinger, G.B., et al. Child non-ischemic priapism, a conservative approach: case report and updated review. J Pediatr Urol, 2013. 9: e99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23287647/

1496.Cantasdemir, M., et al. Posttraumatic high-flow priapism in children treated with autologous blood clot embolization: long-term results and review of the literature. Pediatr Radiol, 2011. 41: 627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21127852/

1497.WHO, WHO Manual for the Standardized Investigation and Diagnosis of the Infertile Couple. 2000, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/infertility/9780521431361/en/

1498.Bender Atik, R., et al. ESHRE guideline: recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod Open, 2018. 2018: hoy004.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31486805/

1499.Zegers-Hochschild, F., et al. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017. Fertil Steril, 2017. 108: 393.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28760517/

1500.Greenhall, E., et al. The prevalence of subfertility: a review of the current confusion and a report of two new studies. Fertil Steril, 1990. 54: 978.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2245856/

1501.Agarwal, A., et al. Male Oxidative Stress Infertility (MOSI): Proposed Terminology and Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Idiopathic Male Infertility. World J Mens Health, 2019. 37: 296.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31081299/

1502.Brandt, J.S., et al. Advanced paternal age, infertility, and reproductive risks: A review of the literature. Prenat Diagn, 2019. 39: 81.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30520056/

1503.Avellino, G., et al. Common urologic diseases in older men and their treatment: how they impact fertility. Fertil Steril, 2017. 107: 305.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28073432/

1504.Jennings, M.O., et al. Management and counseling of the male with advanced paternal age. Fertil Steril, 2017. 107: 324.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28069174/

1505.Ramasamy, R., et al. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age. Fertil Steril, 2015. 103: 1402.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25881878/

1506.Starosta, A., et al. Predictive factors for intrauterine insemination outcomes: a review. Fertil Res Pract, 2020. 6: 23.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33308319/

1507.Van Opstal, J., et al. Male age interferes with embryo growth in IVF treatment. Hum Reprod, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33164068/

1508.Vaughan, D.A., et al. DNA fragmentation of sperm: a radical examination of the contribution of oxidative stress and age in 161398042195945 semen samples. Human Reprod, 2020. 35: 2188.

https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/35/10/2188/5903064?login=true

1509.du Fossé, N.A., et al. Advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Reprod Update, 2020. 26: 650.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32358607/

1510.Wennberg, A.L., et al. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril, 2016. 106: 1142.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27399261/

1511.Sunderam, S., et al. Comparing fertilization rates from intracytoplasmic sperm injection to conventional in vitro fertilization among women of advanced age with non-male factor infertility: a meta-analysis. Feril Steril, 2020. 113: 354.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32106989/

1512.Andrology, In: Male reproductive health and dysfunction. Nieschlag E, Behre HM and Nieschlag
S (eds). 2010, Springer Verlag: Berlin.

1513.Cooper, T.G., et al. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Hum Reprod Update, 2010. 16: 231.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19934213/

1514.Kasman, A.M., et al. Association between preconception paternal health and pregnancy loss in the USA: an analysis of US claims data. Hum Reprod, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33336240/

1515.Nieschlag E, et al., Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction, 3rd edn. Anamnesis and physical examination, ed. Nieschlag E, Behre HM & Nieschlag S. 2010, Berlin.

1516.Lotti, F., et al. Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update, 2015. 21: 56.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25038770/

1517.Bahk, J.Y., et al. Cut-off value of testes volume in young adults and correlation among testes volume, body mass index, hormonal level, and seminal profiles. Urology, 2010. 75: 1318.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20299083/

1518.Jorgensen, N., et al. East-West gradient in semen quality in the Nordic-Baltic area: a study of men from the general population in Denmark, Norway, Estonia and Finland. Hum Reprod, 2002. 17: 2199.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12151459/

1519.Jensen, T.K., et al. Association of in utero exposure to maternal smoking with reduced semen quality and testis size in adulthood: a cross-sectional study of 1,770 young men from the general population in five European countries. Am J Epidemiol, 2004. 159: 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14693659/

1520.Campbell, M.J., et al. Distribution of semen examination results 2020 - A follow up of data collated for the WHO semen analysis manual 2010. Andrology, 2021. 9: 817.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33528873/

1521.Boeri, L., et al. Normal sperm parameters per se do not reliably account for fertility: A case–control study in the real-life setting. Andrologia, 2020. n/a: e13861.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33125742/

1522.WHO. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen Sixth edition. 2021.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240030787

1523.WHO, WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, in 5th edn. 2010.

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/reproductive-health/srhr-documents/infertility/examination-and-processing-of-human-semen-5ed-eng.pdf

1524.Yifu, P., et al. Sperm DNA fragmentation index with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod, 2020: 101740.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32348878/

1525.McQueen, D.B., et al. Sperm DNA fragmentation and recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2019. 112: 54.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31056315/

1526.Grimes, D.A., et al. “Oligozoospermia,” “azoospermia,” and other semen-analysis terminology: the need for better science. Feril Steril, 2007. 88: 1491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17582404/

1527.Simon, L., et al. Sperm DNA Fragmentation: Consequences for Reproduction. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2019. 1166: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31301048/

1528.Nicopoullos, J., et al. Novel use of COMET parameters of sperm DNA damage may increase its utility to diagnose male infertility and predict live births following both IVF and ICSI. Hum Reprod, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31585464/

1529.Tan, J., et al. Association between sperm DNA fragmentation and idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online, 2019. 38: 951.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30979611/

1530.The clinical utility of sperm DNA integrity testing: a guideline. Fertil Steril, 2013. 99: 673.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23391408/

1531.Kim, G.Y. What should be done for men with sperm DNA fragmentation? Clin Exp Reprod Med, 2018. 45: 101.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30202739/

1532.Evenson, D.P. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA(R)). Methods Mol Biol, 2013. 927: 147.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22992911/

1533.Evenson, D.P., et al. Sperm chromatin structure assay: its clinical use for detecting sperm DNA fragmentation in male infertility and comparisons with other techniques. J Androl, 2002. 23: 25.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11780920/

1534.Tarozzi, N., et al. Clinical relevance of sperm DNA damage in assisted reproduction. Reprod Biomed Online, 2007. 14: 746.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17579991/

1535.Esteves, S.C., et al. Reproductive outcomes of testicular versus ejaculated sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection among men with high levels of DNA fragmentation in semen: systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2017. 108: 456.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28865546/

1536.Martin-du-Pan, R.C., et al. Increased follicle stimulating hormone in infertile men. Is increased plasma FSH always due to damaged germinal epithelium? Hum Reprod, 1995. 10: 1940.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8567817/

1537.Ishikawa, T., et al. Clinical and hormonal findings in testicular maturation arrest. BJU international, 2004. 94: 1314.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15610112/

1538.Ramasamy, R., et al. High serum FSH levels in men with nonobstructive azoospermia does not affect success of microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Fertil Steril, 2009. 92: 590.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18973887/

1539.Zeadna, A., et al. Prediction of sperm extraction in non-obstructive azoospermia patients: a machine-learning perspective. Hum Reprod, 2020. 35: 1505.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32538428/

1540.Carrell, D.T. The clinical implementation of sperm chromosome aneuploidy testing: pitfalls and promises. J Androl, 2008. 29: 124.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17881765/

1541.Aran, B., et al. Screening for abnormalities of chromosomes X, Y, and 18 and for diploidy in spermatozoa from infertile men participating in an in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection program. Feril Steril, 1999. 72: 696.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10521113/

1542.Kohn, T.P., et al. Genetic counseling for men with recurrent pregnancy loss or recurrent implantation failure due to abnormal sperm chromosomal aneuploidy. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2016. 33: 571.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27020275/

1543.Johnson, M.D. Genetic risks of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the treatment of male infertility: recommendations for genetic counseling and screening. Fertil Steril, 1998. 70: 397.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9757865/

1544.Clementini, E., et al. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in 2078 infertile couples referred for assisted reproductive techniques. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 437.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15567875/

1545.Vincent, M.C., et al. Cytogenetic investigations of infertile men with low sperm counts: a 25-year experience. J Androl, 2002. 23: 18.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11780918/

1546.Deebel, N.A., et al. Age-related presence of spermatogonia in patients with Klinefelter syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2020. 26: 58.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31822886/

1547.Vockel, M., et al. The X chromosome and male infertility. Hum Genet, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31875237/

1548.Ventimiglia, E., et al. When to Perform Karyotype Analysis in Infertile Men? Validation of the European Association of Urology Guidelines with the Proposal of a New Predictive Model. Eur Urol, 2016. 70: 920.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27343001/

1549.Dul, E.C., et al. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in subgroups of infertile men. Hum Reprod, 2012. 27: 36.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22081244/

1550.Davila Garza, S.A., et al. Reproductive outcomes in patients with male infertility because of Klinefelter’s syndrome, Kartagener’s syndrome, round-head sperm, dysplasia fibrous sheath, and ‘stump’ tail sperm: an updated literature review. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2013. 25: 229.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23587797/

1551.Pozzi, E., et al. Rates of hypogonadism forms in Klinefelter patients undergoing testicular sperm extraction: A multicenter cross-sectional study. Andrology, 2020. 8: 1705.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32558292/

1552.Wang, C., et al. Hormonal studies in Klinefelter’s syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1975. 4: 399.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1157343/

1553.Calogero, A.E., et al. Klinefelter syndrome: cardiovascular abnormalities and metabolic disorders.
J Endocrinol Invest, 2017. 40: 705.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28258556/

1554.Staessen, C., et al. PGD in 47,XXY Klinefelter’s syndrome patients. Hum Reprod Update, 2003. 9: 319.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12926526/

1555.Chevret, E., et al. Increased incidence of hyperhaploid 24,XY spermatozoa detected by three-colour FISH in a 46,XY/47,XXY male. Hum Genet, 1996. 97: 171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8566948/

1556.Martini, E., et al. Constitution of semen samples from XYY and XXY males as analysed by in-situ hybridization. Hum Reprod, 1996. 11: 1638.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8921108/

1557.Cozzi, J., et al. Achievement of meiosis in XXY germ cells: study of 543 sperm karyotypes from an XY/XXY mosaic patient. Hum Genet, 1994. 93: 32.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8270252/

1558.Estop, A.M., et al. Meiotic products of a Klinefelter 47,XXY male as determined by sperm fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis. Hum Reprod, 1998. 13: 124.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9512242/

1559.Foresta, C., et al. High incidence of sperm sex chromosomes aneuploidies in two patients with Klinefelter’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1998. 83: 203.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9435442/

1560.Guttenbach, M., et al. Segregation of sex chromosomes into sperm nuclei in a man with 47,XXY Klinefelter’s karyotype: a FISH analysis. Hum Genet, 1997. 99: 474.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9099836/

1561.Aksglaede, L., et al. Testicular function and fertility in men with Klinefelter syndrome: a review. Eur
J Endocrinol, 2013. 168: R67.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23504510/

1562.Corona, G., et al. Sperm recovery and ICSI outcomes in Klinefelter syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2017. 23: 265.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28379559/

1563.Okada, H., et al. Age as a limiting factor for successful sperm retrieval in patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter’s syndrome. Fertil Steril, 2005. 84: 1662.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16359961/

1564.Pizzocaro, A., et al. Testosterone treatment in male patients with Klinefelter syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest, 2020. 43: 1675.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32567016/

1565.Groth, K.A., et al. Clinical review: Klinefelter syndrome--a clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2013. 98: 20.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23118429/

1566.Gravholt, C.H., et al. Klinefelter Syndrome: Integrating Genetics, Neuropsychology, and Endocrinology. Endocr Rev, 2018. 39: 389.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29438472/

1567.Glueck, C.J., et al. Thrombophilia in Klinefelter Syndrome With Deep Venous Thrombosis, Pulmonary Embolism, and Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis on Testosterone Therapy: A Pilot Study. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, 2017. 23: 973.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27582022/

1568.Gies, I., et al. Spermatogonial stem cell preservation in boys with Klinefelter syndrome: to bank or not to bank, that’s the question. Fertil Steril, 2012. 98: 284.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22608314/

1569.Franik, S., et al. Klinefelter syndrome and fertility: sperm preservation should not be offered to children with Klinefelter syndrome. Hum Reprod, 2016. 31: 1952.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27412247/

1570.Ferlin, A., et al. Contemporary genetics-based diagnostics of male infertility. Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 2019. 19: 623.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31215260/

1571.Nguyen, M.H., et al. Balanced complex chromosome rearrangement in male infertility: case report and literature review. Andrologia, 2015. 47: 178.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24612408/

1572.Siffroi, J.P., et al. Assisted reproductive technology and complex chromosomal rearrangements: the limits of ICSI. Mol Hum Reprod, 1997. 3: 847.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9395262/

1573.De Boeck, K. Cystic fibrosis in the year 2020: a disease with a new face. Acta Paediatr, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31899933/

1574.McBride, J.A., et al. Sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in men with cystic fibrosis disease versus congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Asian J Androl, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32930103/

1575.Donat, R., et al. The incidence of cystic fibrosis gene mutations in patients with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens in Scotland. Br J Urol, 1997. 79: 74.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9043501/

1576.Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive, M. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile male: a committee opinion. Feril Steril, 2015. 103: e18.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25597249/

1577.Oates, R. Evaluation of the azoospermic male. Asian J Androl, 2012. 14: 82.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22179510/

1578.Daudin, M., et al. Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens: clinical characteristics, biological parameters, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations, and implications for genetic counseling. Feril Steril, 2000. 74: 1164.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11119745/

1579.Chillon, M., et al. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene in patients with congenital absence of the vas deferens. N Engl J Med, 1995. 332: 1475.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7739684/

1580.De Braekeleer, M., et al. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene in men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Mol Hum Reprod, 1996. 2: 669.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9239681/

1581.Nathanson, K.L., et al. The Y deletion gr/gr and susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumor. Am
J Hum Genet, 2005. 77: 1034.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16380914/

1582.Krausz, C., et al. Genetic risk factors in male infertility. Arch Androl, 2007. 53: 125.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17612870/

1583.Augarten, A., et al. Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Lancet, 1994. 344: 1473.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7968122/

1584.Schlegel, P.N., et al. Urogenital anomalies in men with congenital absence of the vas deferens.
J Urol, 1996. 155: 1644.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8627844/

1585.Drake, M.J., et al. Absent vas deferens and ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney in a child. Br
J Urol, 1996. 77: 756.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8689131/

1586.Vogt, P.H., et al. Human Y chromosome azoospermia factors (AZF) mapped to different subregions in Yq11. Hum Mol Genet, 1996. 5: 933.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8817327/

1587.Krausz, C., et al. Spermatogenic failure and the Y chromosome. Hum Genet, 2017. 136: 637.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28456834/

1588.Skaletsky, H., et al. The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes. Nature, 2003. 423: 825.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12815422/

1589.Tyler-Smith, C., et al. The will-o’-the-wisp of genetics--hunting for the azoospermia factor gene.
N Engl J Med, 2009. 360: 925.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19246366/

1590.Stouffs, K., et al. Are AZFb deletions always incompatible with sperm production? Andrology, 2017. 5: 691.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28395120/

1591.Alksere, B., et al. Case of Inherited Partial AZFa Deletion without Impact on Male Fertility. Case Reports in Genetics, 2019. 3802613

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31781421/

1592.Krausz, C., et al. The Y chromosome and male fertility and infertility. Int J Androl, 2003. 26: 70.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12641824/

1593.Hinch, A.G., et al. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1. PLoS Genet, 2014. 10: e1004503.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25033397/

1594.Colaco, S., et al. Genetics of the human Y chromosome and its association with male infertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2018. 16: 14.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29454353/

1595.Kohn, T.P., et al. The Prevalence of Y-chromosome Microdeletions in Oligozoospermic Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of European and North American Studies. Eur Urol, 2019.
76: 626.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31400948/

1596.Ferlin, A., et al. Molecular and clinical characterization of Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men: a 10-year experience in Italy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 92: 762.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17213277/

1597.Hopps, C.V., et al. Detection of sperm in men with Y chromosome microdeletions of the AZFa, AZFb and AZFc regions. Hum Reprod, 2003. 18: 1660.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12871878/

1598.Park, S.H., et al. Success rate of microsurgical multiple testicular sperm extraction and sperm presence in the ejaculate in korean men with y chromosome microdeletions. Korean J Urol, 2013. 54: 536.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23956830/

1599.Abur, U., et al. Chromosomal and Y-chromosome microdeletion analysis in 1,300 infertile males and the fertility outcome of patients with AZFc microdeletions. Andrologia, 2019. 51: e13402.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31650616/

1600.Krausz, C., et al. Y chromosome and male infertility: update, 2006. Front Biosci, 2006. 11: 3049.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16720375/

1601.Krausz, C., et al. EAA/EMQN best practice guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions: state-of-the-art 2013. Andrology, 2014. 2: 5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24357628/

1602.Stuppia, L., et al. A quarter of men with idiopathic oligo-azoospermia display chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions of different types in interval 6 of Yq11. Hum Genet, 1998. 102: 566.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9654206/

1603.Le Bourhis, C., et al. Y chromosome microdeletions and germinal mosaicism in infertile males. Mol Hum Reprod, 2000. 6: 688.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10908277/

1604.Siffroi, J.P., et al. Sex chromosome mosaicism in males carrying Y chromosome long arm deletions. Hum Reprod, 2000. 15: 2559.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11098026/

1605.Patsalis, P.C., et al. Effects of transmission of Y chromosome AZFc deletions. Lancet, 2002.
360: 1222.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12401251/

1606.Repping, S., et al. Polymorphism for a 1.6-Mb deletion of the human Y chromosome persists through balance between recurrent mutation and haploid selection. Nat Genet, 2003. 35: 247.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14528305/

1607.Giachini, C., et al. Partial AZFc deletions and duplications: clinical correlates in the Italian population. Hum Genet, 2008. 124: 399.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18807255/

1608.Navarro-Costa, P., et al. The AZFc region of the Y chromosome: at the crossroads between genetic diversity and male infertility. Hum Reprod Update, 2010. 16: 525.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20304777/

1609.Stouffs, K., et al. What about gr/gr deletions and male infertility? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2011. 17: 197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20959348/

1610.Bansal, S.K., et al. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses. Sci Rep, 2016. 6: 19798.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26876364/

1611.Zhang, F., et al. Partial deletions are associated with an increased risk of complete deletion in AZFc: a new insight into the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility. J Med Genet, 2007. 44: 437.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17412880/

1612.Haltrich, I. Chromosomal Aberrations with Endocrine Relevance (Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome). Exp Suppl, 2019. 111: 443.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31588543/

1613.Tsang, S.H., et al. Ciliopathy: Bardet-Biedl Syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018. 1085: 171.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30578506/

1614.Mieusset, R., et al. The spectrum of renal involvement in male patients with infertility related to excretory-system abnormalities: phenotypes, genotypes, and genetic counseling. J Nephrol, 2017. 30: 211.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26946416/

1615.Luciano, R.L., et al. Extra-renal manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): considerations for routine screening and management. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2014.
29: 247.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24215018/

1616.Van Batavia, J.P., et al. Fertility in disorders of sex development: A review. J Pediatr Urol, 2016.
12: 418.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27856173/

1617.Kosti, K., et al. Long-term consequences of androgen insensitivity syndrome. Maturitas, 2019. 127: 51.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31351520/

1618.Hsieh, M.H., et al. The genetic and phenotypic basis of infertility in men with pediatric urologic disorders. Urology, 2010. 76: 25.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20451977/

1619.Okutman, O., et al. Genetic evaluation of patients with non-syndromic male infertility. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2018. 35: 1939.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30259277/

1620.Luo, K., et al. Next-generation sequencing analysis of embryos from mosaic patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and preimplantation genetic testing. Feril Steril, 2019. 112: 291.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31133385/

1621.Kohn, T.P., et al. Reproductive outcomes in men with karyotype abnormalities: Case report and review of the literature. Can Urol Assoc, 2015. 9: E667.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26425238/

1622.Gianaroli, L., et al. Frequency of aneuploidy in sperm from patients with extremely severe male factor infertility. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 2140.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15845594/

1623.Pang, M.G., et al. The high incidence of meiotic errors increases with decreased sperm count in severe male factor infertilities. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 1688.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15734753/

1624.Tempest, H.G., et al. Cytogenetic risks in chromosomally normal infertile men. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2009. 21: 223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19424064/

1625.Baccetti, B., et al. Ultrastructural studies of spermatozoa from infertile males with Robertsonian translocations and 18, X, Y aneuploidies. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 2295.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15878922/

1626.Rodrigo, L., et al. Sperm chromosomal abnormalities and their contribution to human embryo aneuploidy. Biol Reprod, 2019. 101: 1091.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31318411/

1627.Agarwal, A., et al. Sperm DNA damage assessment: a test whose time has come. Fertil Steril, 2005. 84: 850.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16213833/

1628.Zini, A., et al. Correlations between two markers of sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation and DNA fragmentation, in fertile and infertile men. Fertil Steril, 2001. 75: 674.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11287017/

1629.Iommiello, V.M., et al. Ejaculate oxidative stress is related with sperm DNA fragmentation and round cells. Int J Endocrinol, 2015. 2015: 321901.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25802519/

1630.Bisht, S., et al. Oxidative stress and male infertility. Nat Rev Urol, 2017. 14: 470.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28508879/

1631.Agarwal, A., et al. Oxidation-reduction potential as a new marker for oxidative stress: Correlation to male infertility. Investig Clin Urol, 2017. 58: 385.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29124237/

1632.Lu, Y., et al. Long-term follow-up of children conceived through assisted reproductive technology*.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2013. 14: 359.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23645173/

1633.Kushnir, V.A., et al. Systematic review of worldwide trends in assisted reproductive technology 2004-2013. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2017. 15: 6.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28069012/

1634.Rinaudo, P., et al. Transitioning from Infertility-Based (ART 1.0) to Elective (ART 2.0) Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies and the DOHaD Hypothesis: Do We Need to Change Consenting? Semin Reprod Med, 2018. 36: 204.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30866007/

1635.Kallen, B., et al. In vitro fertilization in Sweden: child morbidity including cancer risk. Fertil Steril, 2005. 84: 605.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16169392/

1636.Schieve, L.A., et al. Low and very low birth weight in infants conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology. N Engl J Med, 2002. 346: 731.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11882728/

1637.Bonduelle, M., et al. A multi-centre cohort study of the physical health of 5-year-old children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro fertilization and natural conception. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 413.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15576393/

1638.El-Chaar, D., et al. Risk of birth defects increased in pregnancies conceived by assisted Human Reprod. Fertil Steril, 2009. 92: 1557.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18973885/

1639.Davies, M.J., et al. Reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med, 2012. 366: 1803.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22559061/

1640.Rimm, A.A., et al. A meta-analysis of controlled studies comparing major malformation rates in IVF and ICSI infants with naturally conceived children. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2004. 21: 437.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15704519/

1641.Hansen, M., et al. Assisted reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects--a systematic review. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 328.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15567881/

1642.Wen, J., et al. Birth defects in children conceived by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2012. 97: 1331.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22480819/

1643.Rumbold, A.R., et al. Impact of male factor infertility on offspring health and development. Fertil Steril, 2019. 111: 1047.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31155114/

1644.La Rovere, M., et al. Epigenetics and Neurological Disorders in ART. Int J Mol Sci, 2019. 20.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31454921/

1645.Bertoncelli Tanaka, M., et al. Paternal age and assisted reproductive technology: problem solver or trouble maker? Panminerva Med, 2019. 61: 138.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30021419/

1646.Kissin, D.M., et al. Association of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and parental infertility diagnosis with autism in ART-conceived children. Hum Reprod, 2015. 30: 454.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25518976/

1647.Pinborg, A., et al. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2016. 95: 10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26458360/

1648.Jiang, Z., et al. Genetic and epigenetic risks of assisted reproduction. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 2017. 44: 90.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28844405/

1649.Sutcliffe, A.G., et al. A retrospective case-control study of developmental and other outcomes in a cohort of Australian children conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared with a similar group in the United Kingdom. Fertil Steril, 2003. 79: 512.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12620432/

1650.Belva, F., et al. Medical outcome of 8-year-old singleton ICSI children (born >or=32 weeks’ gestation) and a spontaneously conceived comparison group. Hum Reprod, 2007. 22: 506.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16982659/

1651.Makhoul, I.R., et al. In vitro fertilisation and use of ovulation enhancers may both influence childhood height in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 2009. 94: F355.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19700399/

1652.Miles, H.L., et al. In vitro fertilization improves childhood growth and metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 92: 3441.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17566097/

1653.Ceelen, M., et al. Growth during infancy and early childhood in relation to blood pressure and body fat measures at age 8-18 years of IVF children and spontaneously conceived controls born to subfertile parents. Hum Reprod, 2009. 24: 2788.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19648588/

1654.Knoester, M., et al. Perinatal outcome, health, growth, and medical care utilization of 5- to 8-year-old intracytoplasmic sperm injection singletons. Fertil Steril, 2008. 89: 1133.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18177652/

1655.Place, I., et al. A prospective longitudinal study of the physical, psychomotor, and intellectual development of singleton children up to 5 years who were conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared with children conceived spontaneously and by in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril, 2003. 80: 1388.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14667874/

1656.Belva, F., et al. Blood pressure in ICSI-conceived adolescents. Hum Reprod, 2012. 27: 3100.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22814483/

1657.Moll, A.C., et al. Incidence of retinoblastoma in children born after in-vitro fertilisation. Lancet, 2003. 361: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12559867/

1658.Marees, T., et al. Incidence of retinoblastoma in Dutch children conceived by IVF: an expanded study. Hum Reprod, 2009. 24: 3220.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19783550/

1659.Puumala, S.E., et al. Parental infertility, infertility treatment and hepatoblastoma: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Hum Reprod, 2012. 27: 1649.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22473396/

1660.McLaughlin, C.C., et al. Maternal and infant birth characteristics and hepatoblastoma. Am
J Epidemiol, 2006. 163: 818.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16510543/

1661.Gomes, M.V., et al. Abnormal methylation at the KvDMR1 imprinting control region in clinically normal children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies. Mol Hum Reprod, 2009. 15: 471.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19494037/

1662.Lenz, S., et al. Ultrasonic testicular texture and size in 444 men from the general population: correlation to semen quality. Eur Urol, 1993. 24: 231.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8104150/

1663.Lenz, S., et al. Ultrasonic texture and volume of testicles in infertile men. Hum Reprod, 1994. 9: 878.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7929736/

1664.Bieniek, J.M., et al. Prevalence and Management of Incidental Small Testicular Masses Discovered on Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Male Infertility. J Urol, 2018. 199: 481.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28789946/

1665.Tournaye, H., et al. Novel concepts in the aetiology of male reproductive impairment. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2017. 5: 544.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27395771/

1666.Hanson, H.A., et al. Subfertility increases risk of testicular cancer: evidence from population-based semen samples. Fertil Steril, 2016. 105: 322.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26604070/

1667.Barbonetti, A., et al. Testicular Cancer in Infertile Men With and Without Testicular Microlithiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2019. 10: 164.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30949131/

1668.Scandura, G., et al. Incidentally detected testicular lesions <10 mm in diameter: can orchidectomy be avoided? BJU Int, 2018. 121: 575.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29032579/

1669.Gentile, G., et al. Testis Sparing Surgery of Small Testicular Masses: Retrospective Analysis of a Multicenter Cohort. J Urol, 2019: 101097ju0000000000000579.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31580179/

1670.Eifler, J.B., Jr., et al. Incidental testicular lesions found during infertility evaluation are usually benign and may be managed conservatively. J Urol, 2008. 180: 261.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18499177/

1671.Kirkham, A.P., et al. Targeted testicular excision biopsy: when and how should we try to avoid radical orchidectomy? Clin Radiol, 2009. 64: 1158.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19913124/

1672.Dell’Atti, L., et al. Are ultrasonographic measurements a reliable parameter to choose non-palpable testicular masses amenable to treatment with sparing surgery? J buon, 2018. 23: 439.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29745090/

1673.Esen, B., et al. Should we rely on Doppler ultrasound for evaluation of testicular solid lesions? World J Urol, 2018. 36: 1263.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29572727/

1674.Shtricker, A., et al. The value of testicular ultrasound in the prediction of the type and size of testicular tumors. Int Braz J Urol, 2015. 41: 655.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26401856/

1675.Sriprasad S, et al. High frequency colour doppler ultrasound of focal testicular lesion: Crossing vessels (criss-cross) pattern identifies primary malignant tumour. Eur Urol Suppl. , 2003. 2(1): 155.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/246290355

1676.Elert, A., et al. Accuracy of frozen section examination of testicular tumors of uncertain origin. Eur Urol, 2002. 41: 290.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12180230/

1677.Gokhale, S., et al. Epididymal Appearance in Congenital Absence of Vas Deferens. J Ultrasound Med, 2020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32955739/

1678.Du, J., et al. Differential diagnosis of azoospermia and etiologic classification of obstructive azoospermia: role of scrotal and transrectal US. Radiology, 2010. 256: 493.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20515977/

1679.McQuaid, J.W., et al. Ejaculatory duct obstruction: current diagnosis and treatment. Curr Urol Rep, 2013. 14: 291.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23733548/

1680.Berkowitz, G.S., et al. Prevalence and natural history of cryptorchidism. Pediatrics, 1993. 92: 44.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8100060/

1681.van Brakel, J., et al. Scrotal ultrasound findings in previously congenital and acquired unilateral undescended testes and their contralateral normally descended testis. Andrology, 2015. 3: 888.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26216342/

1682.van Brakel, J., et al. Fertility potential in a cohort of 65 men with previously acquired undescended testes. J Pediatr Surg, 2014. 49: 599.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24726121/

1683.Varela-Cives, R., et al. A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age. Int Braz J Urol, 2015. 41: 57.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25928530/

1684.Skakkebaek, N.E., et al. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects. Hum Reprod, 2001. 16: 972.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11331648/

1685.Zhang, L., et al. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One, 2015. 10: e0119006.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25798927/

1686.Bergbrant, S., et al. Cryptorchidism in Sweden: A Nationwide Study of Prevalence, Operative Management, and Complications. J Pediatr, 2018. 194: 197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29331326/

1687.Gracia, J., et al. Clinical and anatomopathological study of 2000 cryptorchid testes. Br J Urol, 1995. 75: 697.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7613821/

1688.Hadziselimovic, F., et al. Infertility in cryptorchidism is linked to the stage of germ cell development at orchidopexy. Horm Res, 2007. 68: 46.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17356291/

1689.Bu, Q., et al. The Effectiveness of hCG and LHRH in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Horm Metab Res, 2016. 48: 318.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27050251/

1690.Wei, Y., et al. Efficacy and safety of human chorionic gonadotropin for treatment of cryptorchidism: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Paediatr Child Health, 2018. 54: 900.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29655188/

1691.Ritzén, E.M., et al. Nordic consensus on treatment of undescended testes. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), 2007. 96: 638.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17326760/

1692.Radmayr, C., et al. EAU Guidelines on Paediatric Urology. EAU Guidelines edn. presented at EAU Annual Congress, Amsterdam 2022, 2022.

https://uroweb.org/guideline/paediatric-urology/

1693.Verkauskas, G., et al. Histopathology of Unilateral Cryptorchidism. Pediatr Dev Pathol, 2019. 22: 53.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30012073/

1694.Yavetz, H., et al. Cryptorchidism: incidence and sperm quality in infertile men. Andrologia, 1992.
24: 293.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1356318/

1695.Wilkerson, M.L., et al. Fertility potential: a comparison of intra-abdominal and intracanalicular testes by age groups in children. Horm Res, 2001. 55: 18.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11423737/

1696.Lee, P.A., et al. Paternity after bilateral cryptorchidism. A controlled study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 1997. 151: 260.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9080933/

1697.Rohayem, J., et al. Delayed treatment of undescended testes may promote hypogonadism and infertility. Endocrine, 2017. 55: 914.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28070708/

1698.Giwercman, A., et al. Prevalence of carcinoma in situ and other histopathological abnormalities in testes of men with a history of cryptorchidism. J Urol, 1989. 142: 998.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2571738/

1699.Pettersson, A., et al. Age at surgery for undescended testis and risk of testicular cancer. N Engl
J Med, 2007. 356: 1835.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17476009/

1700.Chan, E., et al. Ideal timing of orchiopexy: a systematic review. Pediatr Surg Int, 2014. 30: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24232174/

1701.Loebenstein, M., et al. Cryptorchidism, gonocyte development, and the risks of germ cell malignancy and infertility: A systematic review. J Pediatr Surg, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31327540/

1702.Wang, X., et al. Evaluating the Effect of Cryptorchidism on Clinical Stage of Testicular Seminoma. Cancer management and research, 2020. 12: 4883.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32606976/

1703.Radmayr, C., et al. Management of undescended testes: European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines. J Pediatr Urol, 2016. 12: 335.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27687532/

1704.Bloom, D.A. Two-step orchiopexy with pelviscopic clip ligation of the spermatic vessels. J Urol, 1991. 145: 1030.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1673160/

1705.Koni, A., et al. Histopathological evaluation of orchiectomy specimens in 51 late postpubertal men with unilateral cryptorchidism. J Urol, 2014. 192: 1183.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24840535/

1706.Giwercman, A., et al. Initiation of sperm production after bilateral orchiopexy: clinical and biological implications. J Urol, 2000. 163: 1255.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10737515/

1707.Jones, P.F. Approaches to orchidopexy. Br J Urol, 1995. 75: 693.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7613820/

1708.Heidenreich, A. Contralateral testicular biopsy in testis cancer: current concepts and controversies. BJU Int, 2009. 104: 1346.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19840011/

1709.Peng, X., et al. The association risk of male subfertility and testicular cancer: a systematic review. PLoS One, 2009. 4: e5591.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19440348/

1710.Skakkebaek, N.E. Carcinoma in situ of the testis: frequency and relationship to invasive germ cell tumours in infertile men. Histopathology, 1978. 2: 157.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27442/

1711.von der Maase, H., et al. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1986. 293: 1398.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3026550/

1712.Montironi, R. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis: testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. Eur Urol, 2002. 41: 651.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12074783/

1713.Jacobsen, R., et al. Risk of testicular cancer in men with abnormal semen characteristics: cohort study. BMJ, 2000. 321: 789.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11009515/

1714.van Casteren, N.J., et al. Testicular microlithiasis and carcinoma in situ overview and proposed clinical guideline. Int J Androl, 2009. 32: 279.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19207616/

1715.Huyghe, E., et al. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol, 2003. 170: 5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12796635/

1716.Li, D.K., et al. Relationship between urine bisphenol-A level and declining male sexual function.
J Androl, 2010. 31: 500.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20467048/

1717.Nassan, F.L., et al. A crossover-crossback prospective study of dibutyl-phthalate exposure from mesalamine medications and semen quality in men with inflammatory bowel disease. Environ Int, 2016. 95: 120.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27575365/

1718.Giwercman, A., et al. Carcinoma in situ of the undescended testis. Semin Urol, 1988. 6: 110.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2903524/

1719.Hoei-Hansen, C.E., et al. Current approaches for detection of carcinoma in situ testis. Int J Androl, 2007. 30: 398.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17705812/

1720.Tan, I.B., et al. Testicular microlithiasis predicts concurrent testicular germ cell tumors and intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type in adults: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Cancer, 2010. 116: 4520.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20578177/

1721.Oktay, K., et al. Fertility Preservation in Patients With Cancer: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update. J Clin Oncol, 2018. 36: 1994.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29620997/

1722.Lambertini, M., et al. Cancer and fertility preservation: international recommendations from an expert meeting. BMC Med, 2016. 14: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26728489/

1723.Petersen, P.M., et al. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol, 1999. 17: 941.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10071288/

1724.Moody, J.A., et al. Fertility managment in testicular cancer: the need to establish a standardized and evidence-based patient-centric pathway. BJU Int, 2019. 123: 160.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29920910/

1725.Kenney, L.B., et al. Improving Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer: Progress and Future Directions for Survivorship Research. J Clin Oncol, 2018. 36: 2160.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29874140/

1726.Schrader, M., et al. “Onco-tese”: testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic cancer patients before chemotherapy-new guidelines? Urology, 2003. 61: 421.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12597960/

1727.Gilbert, K., et al. Fertility preservation for men with testicular cancer: Is sperm cryopreservation cost effective in the era of assisted reproductive technology? Urol Oncol, 2018. 36: 92.e1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29169844/

1728.Furuhashi, K., et al. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic and very severely oligozoospermic cancer patients. Andrologia, 2013. 45: 107.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22690948/

1729.Tsutsumi, S., et al. Onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) for bilateral testicular tumors: two case reports. J Med Case Rep, 2017. 11: 139.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28511670/

1730.Eberhard, J., et al. Impact of therapy and androgen receptor polymorphism on sperm concentration in men treated for testicular germ cell cancer: a longitudinal study. Hum Reprod, 2004. 19: 1418.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15105386/

1731.Chatziparasidou, A., et al. Sperm aneuploidy in infertile male patients: A systematic review of the literature. Andrologia, 2015. 47: 847.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25352353/

1732.Paoli, D., et al. Fatherhood and Sperm DNA Damage in Testicular Cancer Patients. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2018. 9: 506.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30271379/

1733.Kryukov, G.V., et al. Genetic Effect of Chemotherapy Exposure in Children of Testicular Cancer Survivors. Clin Cancer Res, 2016. 22: 2183.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26631610/

1734.Willemse, P.H., et al. Altered Leydig cell function in patients with testicular cancer: evidence for bilateral testicular defect. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh), 1983. 102: 616.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6133401/

1735.La Vignera, S., et al. Hypogonadism and Sexual Dysfunction in Testicular Tumor Survivors: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in endocrinology, 2019. 10: 264.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31133982/

1736.Skinner, R., et al. Recommendations for gonadotoxicity surveillance in male childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group in collaboration with the PanCareSurFup Consortium. Lancet Oncol, 2017. 18: e75.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28214419/

1737.Richenberg, J., et al. Testicular microlithiasis imaging and follow-up: guidelines of the ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee. Eur Radiol, 2015. 25: 323.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25316054/

1738.Pedersen, M.R., et al. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer: review of the literature. Int Urol Nephrol, 2016. 48: 1079.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27007613/

1739.Pierik, F.H., et al. Is routine scrotal ultrasound advantageous in infertile men? J Urol, 1999. 162: 1618.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10524881/

1740.Derogee, M., et al. Testicular microlithiasis, a premalignant condition: prevalence, histopathologic findings, and relation to testicular tumor. Urology, 2001. 57: 1133.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11377326/

1741.Miller, F.N., et al. Does testicular microlithiasis matter? A review. Clin Radiol, 2002. 57: 883.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12413911/

1742.Giwercman, A., et al. Prevalence of carcinoma in situ and other histopathological abnormalities in testes from 399 men who died suddenly and unexpectedly. J Urol, 1991. 145: 77.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1984105/

1743.de Gouveia Brazao, C.A., et al. Bilateral testicular microlithiasis predicts the presence of the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors in subfertile men. J Urol, 2004. 171: 158.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14665866/

1744.Leblanc, L., et al. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular tumor: a review of the literature. Basic Clin Androl, 2018. 28: 8.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30002831/

1745.DeCastro, B.J., et al. A 5-year followup study of asymptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis.
J Urol, 2008. 179: 1420.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18289592/

1746.Besiroglu, H., et al. The prevalence and severity of varicocele in adult population over the age of forty years old: a cross-sectional study. Aging Male, 2019. 22: 207.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29683379/

1747.Damsgaard, J., et al. Varicocele Is Associated with Impaired Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormone Levels: A Study of 7035 Healthy Young Men from Six European Countries. Eur Urol, 2016. 70: 1019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27423503/

1748.Pallotti, F., et al. Varicocele and semen quality: a retrospective case-control study of 4230 patients from a single centre. J Endocrinol Invest, 2018. 41: 185.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28647897/

1749.Report on varicocele and infertility: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril, 2014. 102: 1556.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25458620/

1750.Freeman, S., et al. Ultrasound evaluation of varicoceles: guidelines and recommendations of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group (ESUR-SPIWG) for detection, classification, and grading. Eur Radiol, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31332561/

1751.Bertolotto, M., et al. Ultrasound evaluation of varicoceles: systematic literature review and rationale of the ESUR-SPIWG Guidelines and Recommendations. J Ultrasound, 2020. 23: 487.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32720266/

1752.Sakamoto, H., et al. Testicular volume measurement: comparison of ultrasonography, orchidometry, and water displacement. Urology, 2007. 69: 152.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17270639/

1753.Baazeem, A., et al. Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair. Eur Urol, 2011. 60: 796.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21733620/

1754.Jensen, C.F.S., et al. Varicocele and male infertility. Nat Rev Urol, 2017. 14: 523.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28675168/

1755.Agarwal, A., et al. Efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving semen parameters: new meta-analytical approach. Urology, 2007. 70: 532.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17905111/

1756.Elzanaty, S. Varicocele repair in non-obstructive azoospermic men: diagnostic value of testicular biopsy - a meta-analysis. Scand J Urol, 2014. 48: 494.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25001949/

1757.Esteves, S.C., et al. Outcome of varicocele repair in men with nonobstructive azoospermia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl, 2016. 18: 246.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26680033/

1758.Kim, H.J., et al. Clinical significance of subclinical varicocelectomy in male infertility: systematic review and meta-analysis. Andrologia, 2016. 48: 654.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26589369/

1759.Kim, K.H., et al. Impact of surgical varicocele repair on pregnancy rate in subfertile men with clinical varicocele and impaired semen quality: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Korean J Urol, 2013. 54: 703.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24175046/

1760.Baek, S.R., et al. Comparison of the clinical characteristics of patients with varicocele according to the presence or absence of scrotal pain. Andrologia, 2019. 51: e13187.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30357879/

1761.Asafu-Adjei, D., et al. Systematic Review of the Impact of Varicocele Grade on Response to Surgical Management. J Urol, 2020. 203: 48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31042452/

1762.Yamamoto, M., et al. Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm parameters and pregnancy rate in patients with subclinical varicocele: a randomized prospective controlled study. J Urol, 1996. 155: 1636.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8627841/

1763.Kroese, A.C., et al. Surgery or embolization for varicoceles in subfertile men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012. 10: CD000479.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23076888/

1764.Machen, G.L., et al. Time to improvement of semen parameters after microscopic varicocelectomy: When it occurs and its effects on fertility. Andrologia, 2020. 52: e13500.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31840291/

1765.Pazir, Y., et al. Determination of the time for improvement in semen parameters after varicocelectomy. Andrologia, 2020: e13895.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33141946/

1766.Cayan, S., et al. Can varicocelectomy significantly change the way couples use assisted reproductive technologies? J Urol, 2002. 167: 1749.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11912402/

1767.Peng, J., et al. Spontaneous pregnancy rates in Chinese men undergoing microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy and possible preoperative factors affecting the outcomes. Fertil Steril, 2015.
103: 635.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25624191/

1768.Kirby, E.W., et al. Undergoing varicocele repair before assisted reproduction improves pregnancy rate and live birth rate in azoospermic and oligospermic men with a varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2016. 106: 1338.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27526630/

1769.Ding, H., et al. Open non-microsurgical, laparoscopic or open microsurgical varicocelectomy for male infertility: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BJU Int, 2012. 110: 1536.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22642226/

1770.Locke, J.A., et al. Treatment of varicocele in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr Urol, 2017. 13: 437.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28851509/

1771.Silay, M.S., et al. Treatment of Varicocele in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis from the European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines Panel. Eur Urol, 2019. 75: 448.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30316583/

1772.Sajadi, H., et al. Varicocelectomy May Improve Results for Sperm Retrieval and Pregnancy Rate in Non-Obstructive Azoospermic Men. Int J Fertil Steril, 2019. 12: 303.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30291690/

1773.Chen, X., et al. Efficacy of varicocelectomy in the treatment of hypogonadism in subfertile males with clinical varicocele: A meta-analysis. Andrologia, 2017. 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28378913/

1774.Yan, S., et al. Should the current guidelines for the treatment of varicoceles in infertile men be re-evaluated? Hum Fertil (Camb), 2019: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30905210/

1775.Machen, G.L., et al. Extended indications for varicocelectomy. F1000Res, 2019. 8.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31543949/

1776.Cayan, S., et al. Treatment of palpable varicocele in infertile men: a meta-analysis to define the best technique. J Androl, 2009. 30: 33.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18772487/

1777.Wang, H., et al. Microsurgery Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Varicocele: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Invest Surg, 2018: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30339469/

1778.Bryniarski, P., et al. The comparison of laparoscopic and microsurgical varicocoelectomy in infertile men with varicocoele on paternity rate 12 months after surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Andrology, 2017. 5: 445.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28346969/

1779.Etafy, M., et al. Review of the role of robotic surgery in male infertility. Arab J Urol, 2018. 16: 148.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29713546/

1780.McCullough, A., et al. A retrospective review of single-institution outcomes with robotic-assisted microsurgical varicocelectomy. Asian J Androl, 2018. 20: 189.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29086759/

1781.Chan, P., et al. Pros and cons of robotic microsurgery as an appropriate approach to male reproductive surgery for vasectomy reversal and varicocele repair. Fertil Steril, 2018. 110: 816.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30316417/

1782.Crestani, A., et al. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results. Asian J Androl, 2016. 18: 292.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26763550/

1783.Tauber, R., et al. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicocele: technique and late results. J Urol, 1994. 151: 386.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8283530/

1784.Makris, G.C., et al. Safety and effectiveness of the different types of embolic materials for the treatment of testicular varicoceles: a systematic review. Br J Radiol, 2018. 91: 20170445.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29493263/

1785.Sigmund, G., et al. Idiopathic varicoceles: feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy. Radiology, 1987. 164: 161.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3588899/

1786.Seyferth, W., et al. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of varicocele. Radiology, 1981. 139: 335.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7220877/

1787.Goldstein, M., et al. Microsurgical inguinal varicocelectomy with delivery of the testis: an artery and lymphatic sparing technique. J Urol, 1992. 148: 1808.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1433614/

1788.Ivanissevich, O. Left varicocele due to reflux; experience with 4,470 operative cases in forty-two years. J Int Coll Surg, 1960. 34: 742.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13718224/

1789.Palomo, A. Radical cure of varicocele by a new technique; preliminary report. J Urol, 1949. 61: 604.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18114752/

1790.Jungwirth, A., et al. Clinical outcome of microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy in infertile men. Andrologia, 2001. 33: 71.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11350369/

1791.Rotker, K., et al. Recurrent varicocele. Asian J Androl, 2016. 18: 229.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26806078/

1792.Miersch, W.D., et al. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy: indication, technique and surgical results. Br
J Urol, 1995. 76: 636.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8535687/

1793.Tan, S.M., et al. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy: technique and results. Br J Urol, 1995. 75: 523.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7788264/

1794.WHO, WHO Manual for the Standardized Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Male. 2000, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/infertility/0521774748/en/

1795.Purvis, K., et al. Infection in the male reproductive tract. Impact, diagnosis and treatment in relation to male infertility. Int J Androl, 1993. 16: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8468091/

1796.Weidner, W., et al. Relevance of male accessory gland infection for subsequent fertility with special focus on prostatitis. Hum Reprod Update, 1999. 5: 421.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10582781/

1797.Gimenes, F., et al. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens. Nat Rev Urol, 2014. 11: 672.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25330794/

1798.Fode, M., et al. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol Focus, 2016. 2: 383.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28723470/

1799.Rusz, A., et al. Influence of urogenital infections and inflammation on semen quality and male fertility. World J Urol, 2012. 30: 23.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21748371/

1800.Liversedge, N.H., et al. Antibiotic treatment based on seminal cultures from asymptomatic male partners in in-vitro fertilization is unnecessary and may be detrimental. Hum Reprod, 1996. 11: 1227.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8671429/

1801.Taylor-Robinson, D. Evaluation and comparison of tests to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections. Hum Reprod, 1997. 12: 113.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9433967/

1802.Khoshakhlagh, A., et al. Comparison the diagnostic value of serological and molecular methods for screening and detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in semen of infertile men: A cross-sectional study. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd), 2017. 15: 763.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29492473/

1803.Páez-Canro, C., et al. Antibiotics for treating urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and non-pregnant women. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2019. 1: CD010871.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30682211/

1804.Liang, Y., et al. Comparison of rRNA-based and DNA-based nucleic acid amplifications for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in urogenital swabs. BMC Infect Dis, 2018. 18: 651.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30541468/

1805.Weidner, W., et al. Ureaplasmal infections of the male urogenital tract, in particular prostatitis, and semen quality. Urol Int, 1985. 40: 5.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3883615/

1806.Taylor-Robinson, D. Infections due to species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma: an update. Clin Infect Dis, 1996. 23: 671.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8909826/

1807.Huang, C., et al. Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Andrology, 2015. 3: 809.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26311339/

1808.Boeri, L., et al. High-risk human papillomavirus in semen is associated with poor sperm progressive motility and a high sperm DNA fragmentation index in infertile men. Hum Reprod, 2019. 34: 209.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30517657/

1809.Foresta, C., et al. HPV-DNA sperm infection and infertility: From a systematic literature review to a possible clinical management proposal. Andrology, 2015. 3: 163.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25270519/

1810.Lyu, Z., et al. Human papillomavirus in semen and the risk for male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis, 2017. 17: 714.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29121862/

1811.Xiong, Y.Q., et al. The risk of human papillomavirus infection for male fertility abnormality: a meta-analysis. Asian J Androl, 2018. 20: 493.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29623908/

1812.Depuydt, C.E., et al. Infectious human papillomavirus virions in semen reduce clinical pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril, 2019. 111: 1135.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31005311/

1813.Aitken, R.J., et al. Seminal leukocytes: passengers, terrorists or good samaritans? Hum Reprod, 1995. 10: 1736.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8582971/

1814.Trum, J.W., et al. Value of detecting leukocytospermia in the diagnosis of genital tract infection in subfertile men. Fertil Steril, 1998. 70: 315.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9696227/

1815.Krieger, J.N., et al. Seminal fluid findings in men with nonbacterial prostatitis and prostatodynia.
J Androl, 1996. 17: 310.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8792222/

1816.Weidner, W., et al. Semen parameters in men with and without proven chronic prostatitis. Arch Androl, 1991. 26: 173.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1872650/

1817.Jung, J.H., et al. Treatment of Leukocytospermia in Male Infertility: A Systematic Review. World
J Mens Health, 2016. 34: 165.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28053945/

1818.Condorelli, R.A., et al. Chronic prostatitis and its detrimental impact on sperm parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest, 2017.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28488229/

1819.Boeri, L., et al. Semen infections in men with primary infertility in the real-life setting. Fertil Steril, 2020. 113: 1174.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32299615/

1820.Wolff, H. The biologic significance of white blood cells in semen. Fertil Steril, 1995. 63: 1143.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7750580/

1821.Wolff, H., et al. Impact of clinically silent inflammation on male genital tract organs as reflected by biochemical markers in semen. J Androl, 1991. 12: 331.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1765569/

1822.Dousset, B., et al. Seminal cytokine concentrations (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, sR IL-2, sR IL-6), semen parameters and blood hormonal status in male infertility. Hum Reprod, 1997. 12: 1476.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9262280/

1823.Huleihel, M., et al. Distinct expression levels of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men. Fertil Steril, 1996. 66: 135.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8752625/

1824.Shimonovitz, S., et al. High concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptors in ejaculate with low sperm motility. Hum Reprod, 1994. 9: 653.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8046017/

1825.Zalata, A., et al. Evaluation of beta-endorphin and interleukin-6 in seminal plasma of patients with certain andrological diseases. Hum Reprod, 1995. 10: 3161.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8822435/

1826.Alexander, R.B., et al. Elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the semen of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Urology, 1998. 52: 744.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9801092/

1827.La Vignera, S., et al. Markers of semen inflammation: supplementary semen analysis? J Reprod Immunol, 2013. 100: 2.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23850173/

1828.Ahmadi, M.H., et al. Association of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection with male infertility and the effect of antibiotic therapy in improvement of semen quality in infected infertile men. Andrologia, 2018.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29292525/

1829.Depuydt, C.E., et al. The relation between reactive oxygen species and cytokines in andrological patients with or without male accessory gland infection. J Androl, 1996. 17: 699.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9016401/

1830.Schaeffer, A.J. Clinical practice. Chronic prostatitis and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome. N Engl
J Med, 2006. 355: 1690.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17050893/

1831.Wagenlehner, F.M., et al. Chronic bacterial prostatitis (NIH type II): diagnosis, therapy and influence on the fertility status. Andrologia, 2008. 40: 100.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18336459/

1832.Weidner, W., et al. Therapy in male accessory gland infection--what is fact, what is fiction? Andrologia, 1998. 30 Suppl 1: 87.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9629448/

1833.Comhaire, F.H., et al. The effect of doxycycline in infertile couples with male accessory gland infection: a double blind prospective study. Int J Androl, 1986. 9: 91.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3539821/

1834.Berger, R., Epididymitis. In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Holmes KK, Mardh PA, Sparling PF et al. (eds). 1984, McGraw-Hill: New York.

1835.Berger, R.E., et al. Etiology, manifestations and therapy of acute epididymitis: prospective study of 50 cases. J Urol, 1979. 121: 750.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/379366/

1836.Weidner, W., et al. Acute nongonococcal epididymitis. Aetiological and therapeutic aspects. Drugs, 1987. 34 Suppl 1: 111.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3481311/

1837.National guideline for the management of epididymo-orchitis. Clinical Effectiveness Group (Association of Genitourinary Medicine and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases). Sex Transm Infect, 1999. 75 Suppl 1: S51.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10616385/

1838.Weidner, W., et al., Orchitis. In: Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Knobil E, Neill JD (eds). 1999, Academic Press: San Diego.

1839.Robinson, A.J., et al. Acute epididymitis: why patient and consort must be investigated. Br J Urol, 1990. 66: 642.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2265337/

1840.Rastrelli, G., et al. Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity in erectile dysfunction and male infertility. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab, 2019. 14: 321.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31464531/

1841.Hakonsen, L.B., et al. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men. Reprod Health, 2011. 8: 24.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21849026/

1842.Lee, Y., et al. Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Male Sex Hormones and Sperm Quality: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Obes Surg, 2019. 29: 334.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30382463/

1843.WHO. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health - Global recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.

https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdf

1844.Ibanez-Perez, J., et al. An update on the implication of physical activity on semen quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2019. 299: 901.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30671700/

1845.Sharma, R., et al. Cigarette Smoking and Semen Quality: A New Meta-analysis Examining the Effect of the 2010 World Health Organization Laboratory Methods for the Examination of Human Semen. Eur Urol, 2016. 70: 635.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27113031/

1846.Oyeyipo, I.P., et al. Effects of nicotine on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in adult male rats: a possible role of cessation. J Reprod Infertil, 2011. 12: 201.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23926503/

1847.Santos, E.P., et al. Impact of spontaneous smoking cessation on sperm quality: case report. Andrologia, 2011. 43: 431.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21486415/

1848.Vanegas, J.C., et al. Discrete survival model analysis of a couple’s smoking pattern and outcomes of assisted reproduction. Fertil Res Pract, 2017. 3.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28480049/

1849.Ricci, E., et al. Semen quality and alcohol intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online, 2017. 34: 38.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28029592/

1850.The Physicians’ guide to helping patients with alcohol problems. 1995.

https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/practitioner/cliniciansguide2005/guide.pdf

1851.Muthusami, K.R., et al. Effect of chronic alcoholism on male fertility hormones and semen quality. Fertil Steril, 2005. 84: 919.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16213844/

1852.Sidorkiewicz, I., et al. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals-Mechanisms of action on male reproductive system. Toxicol Ind Health, 2017. 33: 601.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28464759/

1853.Agarwal, A., et al. Correlation of reactive oxygen species levels with the fertilization rate after in vitro fertilization: a qualified meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2005. 84: 228.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16009190/

1854.Showell, M.G., et al. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2014: CD007411.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25504418/

1855.Smits, R.M., et al. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019.
3: Cd007411.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30866036/

1856.Steiner, A.Z., et al. The effect of antioxidants on male factor infertility: the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril, 2020. 113: 552.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32111479/

1857.Cannarella, R., et al. Effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulators for the treatment of male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2019. 20: 1517.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31120775/

1858.Kamischke, A., et al. Analysis of medical treatment of male infertility. Hum Reprod, 1999. 14 Suppl 1: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10573021/

1859.Chua, M.E., et al. Revisiting oestrogen antagonists (clomiphene or tamoxifen) as medical empiric therapy for idiopathic male infertility: a meta-analysis. Andrology, 2013. 1: 749.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23970453/

1860.Cooke, P.S., et al. Estrogens in Male Physiology. Physiol Rev, 2017. 97: 995.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28539434/

1861.Schulster, M., et al. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function. Asian J Androl, 2016.
18: 435.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26908066/

1862.Ring, J.D., et al. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility. Asian J Androl, 2016. 18: 357.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27098657/

1863.Xu, X., et al. The Effect of Aromatase on the Reproductive Function of Obese Males. Horm Metab Res, 2017. 49: 572.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28679145/

1864.Del Giudice, F., et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials implementing aromatase inhibitors to treat male infertility. Asian J Androl, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31621654/

1865.El Meliegy, A., et al. Systematic review of hormone replacement therapy in the infertile man. Arab
J Urol, 2018. 16: 140.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29713545/

1866.Jones, T.H., et al. Diurnal rhythm of testosterone induced by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) therapy in isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism: a comparison between subcutaneous and intramuscular hCG administration. Eur J Endocrinol, 1994. 131: 173.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8075787/

1867.Guo, C.Y., et al. Treatment of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1997. 82: 658.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9024272/

1868.Efficacy and safety of highly purified urinary follicle-stimulating hormone with human chorionic gonadotropin for treating men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. European Metrodin HP Study Group. Fertil Steril, 1998. 70: 256.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9696217/

1869.Bouloux, P., et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Fertil Steril, 2002. 77: 270.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11821082/

1870.Jones, T.H., et al. Self-administered subcutaneous human menopausal gonadotrophin for the stimulation of testicular growth and the initiation of spermatogenesis in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1993. 38: 203.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8435901/

1871.Burris, A.S., et al. Gonadotropin therapy in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: the response to human chorionic gonadotropin is predicted by initial testicular size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1988. 66: 1144.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3372679/

1872.Dwyer, A.A., et al. Trial of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone pretreatment for GnRH-induced fertility in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2013. 98: E1790.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24037890/

1873.Liu, P.Y., et al. Induction of spermatogenesis and fertility during gonadotropin treatment of gonadotropin-deficient infertile men: predictors of fertility outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2009. 94: 801.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19066302/

1874.Ribeiro, R.S., et al. Clomiphene fails to revert hypogonadism in most male patients with conventionally treated nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol, 2011. 55: 266.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21779629/

1875.Simoni, M., et al. Prospects for FSH Treatment of Male Infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2020. 105.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32374828/

1876.Colacurci, N., et al. Recombinant FSH improves sperm DNA damage in male infertility: A phase II clinical trial. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2018. 9: 383.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30042737/

1877.Ding, Y.M., et al. Treatment of idiopathic oligozoospermia with recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in Chinese population. Clinical Endocrinology, 2015. 83: 866.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25761129/

1878.Shinjo, E., et al. The effect of human chorionic gonadotropin-based hormonal therapy on intratesticular testosterone levels and spermatogonial DNA synthesis in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Andrology, 2013. 1: 929.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24123916/

1879.Simoni, M., et al. Treatment with human, recombinant FSH improves sperm DNA fragmentation in idiopathic infertile men depending on the FSH receptor polymorphism p.N680S: A pharmacogenetic study. Human Reprod, 2016. 31: 1960.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27329968/

1880.Cannarella, R., et al. FSH dosage effect on conventional sperm parameters: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Asian J Androl, 2020. 22: 309.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31274479/

1881.Attia, A.M., et al. Gonadotrophins for idiopathic male factor subfertility. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2013. 8: CD005071.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23970458/

1882.Santi, D., et al. FSH treatment of male idiopathic infertility improves pregnancy rate: A meta-analysis. Endocrine Connect, 2015. 4: R46.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26113521/

1883.Cocci, A., et al. Effectiveness of highly purified urofollitropin treatment in patients with idiopathic azoospermia before testicular sperm extraction. Urol J, 2018. 85: 19.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28799634/

1884.Hussein, A., et al. Optimization of spermatogenesis-regulating hormones in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia and its impact on sperm retrieval: A multicentre study. BJU International, 2013. 111: E110.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22958644

1885.Gul, U., et al. The effect of human chorionic gonadotropin treatment before testicular sperm extraction in non-obstructive azoospermia. J Clin Analyt Med, 2016. 7: 55.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307813602

1886.El Osta, R., et al. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility. Basic Clin Androl, 2016. 26: 2.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26855782/

1887.Wosnitzer, M.S., et al. Obstructive azoospermia. Urol Clin North Am, 2014. 41: 83.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24286769/

1888.Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in collaboration with the Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. The management of obstructive azoospermia: a committee opinion. Feril Steril, 2019. 111: 873.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31029241/

1889.Schoor, R.A., et al. The role of testicular biopsy in the modern management of male infertility. J Urol, 2002. 167: 197.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11743304/

1890.Hendry, W., Azoospermia and surgery for testicular obstruction. In: Male Infertility, Hargreave TB (ed). 1997, Springer Verlag: Berlin.

1891.Hendry, W.F., et al. Exploratory scrototomy in 168 azoospermic males. Br J Urol, 1983. 55: 785.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6652453/

1892.Jequier, A.M. Obstructive azoospermia: a study of 102 patients. Clin Reprod Fertil, 1985. 3: 21.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3978535/

1893.Oates, R.D., et al. The genetic basis of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and cystic fibrosis. J Androl, 1994. 15: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8188533/

1894.Handelsman, D.J., et al. Young’s syndrome. Obstructive azoospermia and chronic sinopulmonary infections. N Engl J Med, 1984. 310: 3.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6689737/

1895.Schoysman, R. Vaso-epididymostomy--a survey of techniques and results with considerations of delay of appearance of spermatozoa after surgery. Acta Eur Fertil, 1990. 21: 239.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2132475/

1896.Silber, S.J., et al. Microscopic vasectomy reversal 30 years later: a summary of 4010 cases by the same surgeon. J Androl, 2004. 25: 845.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15477352/

1897.Jarvi, K., et al. Adverse effects on vasoepididymostomy outcomes for men with concomitant abnormalities in the prostate and seminal vesicle. J Urol, 1998. 160: 1410.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9751365/

1898.Matthews, G.J., et al. Patency following microsurgical vasoepididymostomy and vasovasostomy: temporal considerations. J Urol, 1995. 154: 2070.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7500460/

1899.Goldstein, M. Treatment of large vasal defects. In: Surgery of Male Infertility. Goldstein M (ed). 1995.

1900.Shin, D., et al. Herniorrhaphy with polypropylene mesh causing inguinal vasal obstruction: a preventable cause of obstructive azoospermia. Ann Surg, 2005. 241: 553.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15798455/

1901.Avellino, G.J., et al. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts: etiology of obstruction and surgical treatment options. Fertil Steril, 2019. 111: 427.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30827517/

1902.Elder, J.S., et al. Cyst of the ejaculatory duct/urogenital sinus. J Urol, 1984. 132: 768.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6471229/

1903.Schuhrke, T.D., et al. Prostatic utricle cysts (mullerian duct cysts). J Urol, 1978. 119: 765.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26814/

1904.Surya, B.V., et al. Cysts of the seminal vesicles: diagnosis and management. Br J Urol, 1988. 62: 491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3208033/

1905.Schroeder-Printzen, I., et al. Surgical therapy in infertile men with ejaculatory duct obstruction: technique and outcome of a standardized surgical approach. Hum Reprod, 2000. 15: 1364.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10831570/

1906.Engin, G., et al. Transrectal US and endorectal MR imaging in partial and complete obstruction of the seminal duct system. A comparative study. Acta Radiol, 2000. 41: 288.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10866088/

1907.Kuligowska, E., et al. Male infertility: role of transrectal US in diagnosis and management. Radiology, 1992. 185: 353.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1410338/

1908.Colpi, G.M., et al. Functional voiding disturbances of the ampullo-vesicular seminal tract: a cause of male infertility. Acta Eur Fertil, 1987. 18: 165.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3125711/

1909.Font, M.D., et al. An infertile male with dilated seminal vesicles due to functional obstruction. Asian
J Androl, 2017. 19: 256.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27320475/

1910.WHO, WHO Manual for the Standardized Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Male. 2000.

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/infertility/0521774748/en/

1911.Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile male: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril, 2015. 103: e18.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25597249/

1912.Adamopoulos, D.A., et al. ‘Value of FSH and inhibin-B measurements in the diagnosis of azoospermia’--a clinician’s overview. Int J Androl, 2010. 33: e109.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19703093/

1913.Radpour, R., et al. Genetic investigations of CFTR mutations in congenital absence of vas deferens, uterus, and vagina as a cause of infertility. J Androl, 2008. 29: 506.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18567645/

1914.Abdel Raheem, A., et al. Testicular histopathology as a predictor of a positive sperm retrieval in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. BJU Int, 2013. 111: 492.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22583840/

1915.Kalsi, J., et al. In the era of micro-dissection sperm retrieval (m-TESE) is an isolated testicular biopsy necessary in the management of men with non-obstructive azoospermia? BJU Int, 2012. 109: 418.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21883824/

1916.Kalsi JS, et al. Salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction; outcome in men with Non obstructive azoospermia. BJU International, 2011.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25220441/

1917.Silber, S.J., et al. Pregnancy with sperm aspiration from the proximal head of the epididymis: a new treatment for congenital absence of the vas deferens. Fertil Steril, 1988. 50: 525.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3410105/

1918.Esteves, S.C., et al. Sperm retrieval techniques for assisted reproduction. Int Braz J Urol, 2011.
37: 570.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22099268/

1919.Esteves, S.C., et al. Reproductive potential of men with obstructive azoospermia undergoing percutaneous sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection according to the cause of obstruction. J Urol, 2013. 189: 232.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23174251/

1920.Schroeder-Printzen, I., et al. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration: aspirate analysis and straws available after cryopreservation in patients with non-reconstructable obstructive azoospermia. MESA/TESE Group Giessen. Hum Reprod, 2000. 15: 2531.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11098022/

1921.Van Peperstraten, A., et al. Techniques for surgical retrieval of sperm prior to ICSI for azoospermia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2006: Cd002807.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16855991/

1922.Yoon, Y.E., et al. The role of vasoepididymostomy for treatment of obstructive azoospermia in the era of in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl, 2018.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30106012/

1923.Peng, J., et al. Pregnancy and live birth rates after microsurgical vasoepididymostomy for azoospermic patients with epididymal obstruction. Hum Reprod, 2017. 32: 284.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28057874/

1924.Farber, N.J., et al. The Kinetics of Sperm Return and Late Failure Following Vasovasostomy or Vasoepididymostomy: A Systematic Review. J Urol, 2019. 201: 241.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30130545/

1925.Kolettis, P.N., et al. Vasoepididymostomy for vasectomy reversal: a critical assessment in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Urol, 1997. 158: 467.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9224325/

1926.Ramasamy, R., et al. Microscopic visualization of intravasal spermatozoa is positively associated with patency after bilateral microsurgical vasovasostomy. Andrology, 2015. 3: 532.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25914288/

1927.Ostrowski, K.A., et al. Impact on Pregnancy of Gross and Microscopic Vasal Fluid during Vasectomy Reversal. J Urol, 2015. 194: 156.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25595861/

1928.Scovell, J.M., et al. Association between the presence of sperm in the vasal fluid during vasectomy reversal and postoperative patency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Urology, 2015. 85: 809.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25697786/

1929.Ruiz-Romero, J., et al. A new device for microsurgical sperm aspiration. Andrologia, 1994. 26: 119.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8042769/

1930.Tran, S., et al. Review of the Different Treatments and Management for Prostate Cancer and Fertility. Urology, 2015. 86: 936.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26368508/

1931.Salonia, A., et al. Sperm banking is of key importance in patients with prostate cancer. Fertil Steril, 2013. 100: 367.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23651627/

1932.Hayden, R. et al. Detection and Management of Obstructive Azoospermia. Urol Pract, 2015. 2: 33.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267340834

1933.Jiang, H.T., et al. Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction. Asian J Androl, 2014. 16: 912.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25337841/

1934.Kasman, A.M., et al. Male Infertility and Future Cardiometabolic Health: Does the Association Vary by Sociodemographic Factors? Urology, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31377255/

1935.Ozturk, H., et al. Asymptomatic Sertoli cell tumour diagnosed during azoospermia work-up. Asian
J Androl, 2013. 15: 845.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24121977/

1936.Fallick, M.L., et al. Leydig cell tumors presenting as azoospermia. J Urol, 1999. 161: 1571.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10210406/

1937.Dieckmann, K.P., et al. Clinical epidemiology of testicular germ cell tumors. World J Urol, 2004.
22: 2.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15034740/

1938.Eisenberg, M.L., et al. Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men. Fertil Steril, 2013. 100: 681.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23790640/

1939.Salonia, A., et al. Are infertile men less healthy than fertile men? Results of a prospective case-control survey. Eur Urol, 2009. 56: 1025.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19297076/

1940.Ventimiglia, E., et al. Infertility as a proxy of general male health: results of a cross-sectional survey. Fertil Steril, 2015. 104: 48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26006735/

1941.Guo, D., et al. Hypertension and Male Fertility. World J Mens Health, 2017. 35: 59.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28868816/

1942.Del Giudice, F., et al. Increased Mortality Among Men Diagnosed With Impaired Fertility: Analysis of US Claims Data. Urology, 2021. 147: 143.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33017614/

1943.Glazer, C.H., et al. Male factor infertility and risk of death: a nationwide record-linkage study. Hum Reprod, 2019. 34: 2266.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31725880/

1944.Choy, J.T., et al. Male infertility as a window to health. Fertil Steril, 2018. 110: 810.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30316415/

1945.Jensen, C.F.S., et al. A Refined View on the Association Between Y-chromosome Microdeletions and Sperm Concentration. Eur Urol, 2019.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31447078/

1946.Bobjer, J., et al. High prevalence of androgen deficiency and abnormal lipid profile in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Int J Androl, 2012. 35: 688.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22519695/

1947.Patel, D.P., et al. Sperm concentration is poorly associated with hypoandrogenism in infertile men. Urology, 2015. 85: 1062.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25735445/

1948.Ventimiglia, E., et al. Primary, secondary and compensated hypogonadism: a novel risk stratification for infertile men. Andrology, 2017. 5: 505.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28409903/

1949.Nowroozi, M.R., et al. Assessment of testicular perfusion prior to sperm extraction predicts success rate and decreases the number of required biopsies in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. Int Urol Nephrol, 2015. 47: 53.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25331197/

1950.Nariyoshi, S., et al. Ultrasonographically determined size of seminiferous tubules predicts sperm retrieval by microdissection testicular sperm extraction in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. Fertil Steril, 2020. 113: 97.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32033740/

1951.Donoso, P., et al. Which is the best sperm retrieval technique for non-obstructive azoospermia? A systematic review. Hum Reprod Update, 2007. 13: 539.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17895238/

1952.Bernie, A.M., et al. Comparison of microdissection testicular sperm extraction, conventional testicular sperm extraction, and testicular sperm aspiration for nonobstructive azoospermia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2015. 104: 1099.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26263080/

1953.Caroppo, E., et al. Testicular histology may predict the successful sperm retrieval in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia undergoing conventional TESE: a diagnostic accuracy study. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2017. 34: 149.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27655389/

1954.Cetinkaya, M., et al. Evaluation of Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction Results in Patients with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia: Independent Predictive Factors and Best Cutoff Values for Sperm Retrieval. Urol J, 2015. 12: 2436.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26706742/

1955.Cissen, M., et al. Prediction model for obtaining spermatozoa with testicular sperm extraction in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod, 2016. 31: 1934.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27406950/

1956.Guler, I., et al. Impact of testicular histopathology as a predictor of sperm retrieval and pregnancy outcome in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia: correlation with clinical and hormonal factors. Andrologia, 2016. 48: 765.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26688565/

1957.Yildirim, M.E., et al. The association between serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and the success of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia. Urol J, 2014. 11: 1825.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25194084/

1958.Ramasamy, R., et al. A comparison of models for predicting sperm retrieval before microdissection testicular sperm extraction in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. J Urol, 2013. 189: 638.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23260551/

1959.Yang, Q., et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone as a predictor for sperm retrieval rate in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl, 2015. 17: 281.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25337843/

1960.Alfano, M., et al. Anti-Mullerian Hormone-to-Testosterone Ratio is Predictive of Positive Sperm Retrieval in Men with Idiopathic Non-Obstructive Azoospermia. Sci Rep, 2017. 7: 17638.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29247212/

1961.Beliveau, M.E., et al. The value of testicular ‘mapping’ in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Asian J Androl, 2011. 13: 225.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21258355/

1962.Turek, P.J., et al. Diagnostic findings from testis fine needle aspiration mapping in obstructed and nonobstructed azoospermic men. J Urol, 2000. 163: 1709.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10799166/

1963.Meng, M.V., et al. Relationship between classic histological pattern and sperm findings on fine needle aspiration map in infertile men. Hum Reprod, 2000. 15: 1973.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10966998/

1964.Ezeh, U.I., et al. A prospective study of multiple needle biopsies versus a single open biopsy for testicular sperm extraction in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod, 1998. 13: 3075.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9853859/

1965.Rosenlund, B., et al. A comparison between open and percutaneous needle biopsies in men with azoospermia. Hum Reprod, 1998. 13: 1266.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9647558/

1966.Hauser, R., et al. Comparison of efficacy of two techniques for testicular sperm retrieval in nonobstructive azoospermia: multifocal testicular sperm extraction versus multifocal testicular sperm aspiration. J Androl, 2006. 27: 28.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16400074/

1967.Jensen, C.F., et al. Multiple needle-pass percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration as first-line treatment in azoospermic men. Andrology, 2016. 4: 257.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26789006/

1968.Schlegel, P.N. Testicular sperm extraction: microdissection improves sperm yield with minimal tissue excision. Hum Reprod, 1999. 14: 131.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10374109/

1969.Sacca, A., et al. Conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and non-obstructive azoospermia: Is there still a chance in the era of microdissection TESE? Results from a single non-academic community hospital. Andrology, 2016. 4: 425.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26872565/

1970.Corona, G., et al. Sperm recovery and ICSI outcomes in men with non-obstructive azoospermia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2019. 25: 733.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31665451/

1971.Deruyver, Y., et al. Outcome of microdissection TESE compared with conventional TESE in non-obstructive azoospermia: A systematic review. Andrology, 2014. 2: 20.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24193894/

1972.Ramasamy, R., et al. Structural and functional changes to the testis after conventional versus microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Urology, 2005. 65: 1190.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15922422/

1973.Achermann, A.P.P., et al. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with infertility due to nonobstructive azoospermia: summary of current literature. Int Urol Nephrol, 2021. 53: 2193.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34410586/

1974.Caroppo, E., et al. Intrasurgical parameters associated with successful sperm retrieval in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia undergoing salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Andrology, 2021.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34289247/

1975.Özman, O., et al. Efficacy of the second micro-testicular sperm extraction after failed first micro-testicular sperm extraction in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. Fertil Steril, 2021. 115: 915.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33358250/

1976.Yücel, C., et al. Predictive factors of successful salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) after failed mTESE in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia: Long-term experience at a single institute. Arch Ital Urol Androl, 2018. 90: 136.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29974724/

1977.Amer, M., et al. Prospective comparative study between microsurgical and conventional testicular sperm extraction in non-obstructive azoospermia: follow-up by serial ultrasound examinations. Hum Reprod, 2000. 15: 653.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10686214/

1978.Eliveld, J., et al. The risk of TESE-induced hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2018. 24: 442.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29726895/

1979.Billa, E., et al. Endocrine Follow-Up of Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Following Testicular Sperm Extraction. J Clin Med, 2021. 10.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34362107/

1980.Takada, S., et al. Androgen decline in patients with nonobstructive azoospemia after microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Urology, 2008. 72: 114.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18372017/

1981.Corona, G., et al. European Academy of Andrology (EAA) guidelines on investigation, treatment and monitoring of functional hypogonadism in males: Endorsing organization: European Society of Endocrinology. Andrology, 2020. 8: 970.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32026626/

1982.Oka, S., et al. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin on testicular interstitial tissues in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Andrology, 2017. 5: 232.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27860441/

1983.Foresta, C., et al. Suppression of the high endogenous levels of plasma FSH in infertile men are associated with improved Sertoli cell function as reflected by elevated levels of plasma inhibin B. Hum Reprod, 2004. 19: 1431.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15117900/

1984.Hussein, A., et al. Clomiphene administration for cases of nonobstructive azoospermia: a multicenter study. J Androl, 2005. 26: 787.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16291975/

1985.Tharakan, T., et al. The Role of Hormone Stimulation in Men With Nonobstructive Azoospermia Undergoing Surgical Sperm Retrieval. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2020. 105.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32810280/

1986.Shiraishi, K., et al. Salvage hormonal therapy after failed microdissection testicular sperm extraction: A multi-institutional prospective study. Int J Urol, 2016. 23: 496.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26989893/

1987.Shiraishi, K., et al. Human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment prior to microdissection testicular sperm extraction in non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod, 2012. 27: 331.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22128297/

1988.Reifsnyder, J.E., et al. Role of optimizing testosterone before microdissection testicular sperm extraction in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. J Urol, 2012. 188: 532.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22704105/

1989.Farquhar, C., et al. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015: Cd010537.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26174592/

1990.Farquhar, C., et al. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018. 8: Cd010537.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30117155/

1991.Kandavel, V., et al. Does intra-uterine insemination have a place in modern ART practice? Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 2018. 53: 3.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30297314/

1992.Veltman-Verhulst, S.M., et al. Intra-uterine insemination for unexplained subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016. 2: Cd001838.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26892070/

1993.Ombelet, W., et al. Semen quality and prediction of IUI success in male subfertility: a systematic review. Reprod Biomed Online, 2014. 28: 300.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24456701/

1994.Adamson, G.D., et al. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology: world report on assisted reproductive technology, 2011. Fertil Steril, 2018. 110: 1067.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30396551/

1995.Wilkes, S. NICE CG156: fertility update. What it means for general practitioners. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care, 2013. 39: 241.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24062494/

1996.Bensdorp, A.J., et al. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. BMJ, 2015. 350: g7771.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25576320/

1997.Goverde, A.J., et al. Further considerations on natural or mild hyperstimulation cycles for intrauterine insemination treatment: effects on pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rates. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 3141.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16037113/

1998.Shapiro, B.S., et al. Clinical rationale for cryopreservation of entire embryo cohorts in lieu of fresh transfer. Fertil Steril, 2014. 102: 3.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24842675/

1999.Ozgur, K., et al. Higher clinical pregnancy rates from frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers compared to fresh blastocyst transfers: a retrospective matched-cohort study. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2015. 32: 1483.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26400506/

2000.Sha, T., et al. Pregnancy-related complications and perinatal outcomes resulting from transfer of cryopreserved versus fresh embryos in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2018.
109: 330.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29331236/

2001.NICE. Fertility Problems: Assessment and Treatment Guidelines.

https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg156/

2002.Devroey, P., et al. A review of ten years experience of ICSI. Hum Reprod Update, 2004. 10: 19.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15005461/

2003.Rubino, P., et al. The ICSI procedure from past to future: a systematic review of the more controversial aspects. Hum Reprod Update, 2016. 22: 194.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26586241/

2004.Palermo, G.D., et al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: state of the art in humans. Reproduction, 2017. 154: F93.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29158352/

2005.Esteves, S.C., et al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility and consequences for offspring. Nat Rev Urol, 2018. 15: 535.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29967387/

2006.Van Peperstraten, A., et al. Techniques for surgical retrieval of sperm prior to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for azoospermia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2008: Cd002807.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18425884/

2007.Ohlander, S., et al. Impact of fresh versus cryopreserved testicular sperm upon intracytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancy outcomes in men with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2014. 101: 344.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24345355/

2008.Abhyankar, N., et al. Use of testicular versus ejaculated sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection among men with cryptozoospermia: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2016. 105: 1469.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26930617/

2009.van Rumste, M.M., et al. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection versus conventional techniques for oocyte insemination during in vitro fertilisation in patients with non-male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2003: Cd001301.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12804403/

2010.Henkel, R.R., et al. Sperm preparation for ART. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2003. 1: 108.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14617368/

2011.Rappa, K.L., et al. Sperm processing for advanced reproductive technologies: Where are we today? Biotechnol Adv, 2016. 34: 578.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26845061/

2012.Said, T.M., et al. Effects of advanced selection methods on sperm quality and ART outcome: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update, 2011. 17: 719.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21873262/

2013.Bartoov, B., et al. Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome. J Androl, 2002. 23: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11780915/

2014.Bartoov, B., et al. Pregnancy rates are higher with intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection than with conventional intracytoplasmic injection. Fertil Steril, 2003. 80: 1413.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14667877/

2015.Berkovitz, A., et al. How to improve IVF-ICSI outcome by sperm selection. Reprod Biomed Online, 2006. 12: 634.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16790113/

2016.Teixeira, D.M., et al. Regular (ICSI) versus ultra-high magnification (IMSI) sperm selection for assisted reproduction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2020. 2: Cd010167.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32083321/

2017.Beck-Fruchter, R., et al. Clinical benefit using sperm hyaluronic acid binding technique in ICSI cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online, 2016. 32: 286.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26776822/

2018.Miller, D., et al. Physiological, hyaluronan-selected intracytoplasmic sperm injection for infertility treatment (HABSelect): a parallel, two-group, randomised trial. Lancet, 2019. 393: 416.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30712901/

2019.Liu, Y., et al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection using hyaluronic acid or polyvinylpyrrolidone: a time-lapse sibling oocyte study. Hum Fertil (Camb), 2019. 22: 39.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28814113/

2020.Gil, M., et al. Sperm selection using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) in assisted reproduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2013. 30: 479.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23468098/

2021.Romany, L., et al. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of babies born from sperm selected by MACS from a randomized controlled trial. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2017. 34: 201.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27882439/

2022.D’Angelo, A., et al. Coasting (withholding gonadotrophins) for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017. 5: Cd002811.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28535578/

2023.Multiple gestation associated with infertility therapy: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine Practice Committee opinion. Fertil Steril, 2012. 97: 825.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22192352/

2024.Practice Bulletin No. 169: Multifetal Gestations: Twin, Triplet, and Higher-Order Multifetal Pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol., 2016. 128: e131.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27661652/

2025.Behrman, E.R. et al. Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes. 2007.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20669423/

2026.Dyer, S., et al. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010. Hum Reprod, 2016. 31: 1588.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27207175/

2027.Hansen, M., et al. Assisted reproductive technology and birth defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2013. 19: 330.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23449641/

2028.Pandey, S., et al. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF/ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2012. 18: 485.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22611174/

2029.Qin, J., et al. Assisted reproductive technology and risk of congenital malformations: a meta-analysis based on cohort studies. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2015. 292: 777.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25877221/

2030.Jain, T., et al. 30 years of data: impact of the United States in vitro fertilization data registry on advancing fertility care. Fertil Steril, 2019. 111: 477.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30737003/

2031.Boulet, S.L., et al. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects Among Liveborn Infants in Florida, Massachusetts, and Michigan, 2000-2010. JAMA Pediatr, 2016. 170: e154934.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27043648/

2032.Liberman, R.F., et al. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births. Birth Defects Res, 2017. 109: 1144.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28635008/

2033.Spaan, M., et al. Risk of cancer in children and young adults conceived by assisted reproductive technology. Hum Reprod, 2019. 34: 740.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30715305/

2034.Lie, R.T., et al. Birth defects in children conceived by ICSI compared with children conceived by other IVF-methods; a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol, 2005. 34: 696.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15561745/

2035.Catford, S.R., et al. Long-term follow-up of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection-conceived offspring compared with in vitro fertilization-conceived offspring: a systematic review of health outcomes beyond the neonatal period. Andrology, 2017. 5: 610.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28632930/

2036.Patel, A., et al. “In Cycles of Dreams, Despair, and Desperation:” Research Perspectives on Infertility Specific Distress in Patients Undergoing Fertility Treatments. J Hum Reprod Sci, 2018. 11: 320.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30787515/

2037.Fisher, J.R., et al. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research. Asian J Androl, 2012. 14: 121.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22179515/

2038.Warchol-Biedermann, K. The Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity and Course of Distress in Males Undergoing Infertility Evaluation Is Affected by Their Factor of Infertility. Am J Mens Health, 2019. 13: 1557988318823904.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30819064/

2039.Martins, M.V., et al. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update, 2016. 22: 466.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27008894/

2040.Gameiro, S., et al. Long-term adjustment to unmet parenthood goals following ART: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 2017. 23: 322.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28164236/

2041.Patel, A., et al. Role of Mental Health Practitioner in Infertility Clinics: A Review on Past, Present and Future Directions. J Hum Reprod Sci, 2018. 11: 219.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30568350/

2042.Hammarberg, K., et al. Men’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility. Hum Reprod Update, 2017. 23: 458.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28333354/

2043.Sylvest, R., et al. Attitudes towards family formation among men attending fertility counselling. Reprod Biomed Soc Online, 2018. 6: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30182067/

2044.Tharakan, T., et al. Male Sexual and Reproductive Health-Does the Urologist Have a Role in Addressing Gender Inequality in Life Expectancy? Eur Urol focus, 2019: S2405.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31711931/

2045.WHO. The health and well-being of men in the WHO European Region: better health through a gender approach. 2018.

https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/329686

2046.Hanson, B.M., et al. Male infertility: a biomarker of individual and familial cancer risk. Feril Steril, 2018. 109: 6.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29307404/

2047.Brubaker, W.D., et al. Increased risk of autoimmune disorders in infertile men: analysis of US claims data. Andrology, 2018. 6: 94.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29179258/

2048.Glazer, C.H., et al. Male factor infertility and risk of multiple sclerosis: A register-based cohort study. Mult Scler, 2017: 1352458517734069.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29027840/

2049.Wang, N.N., et al. The association between varicocoeles and vascular disease: an analysis of U.S. claims data. Andrology, 2018. 6: 99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29195012/

2050.Cornford, P., et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. Part II: Treatment of Relapsing, Metastatic, and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol, 2017. 71: 630.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27591931/

2051.Punnen, S., et al. Long-term health-related quality of life after primary treatment for localized prostate cancer: results from the CaPSURE registry. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 600.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25242555/

2052.Walker, L.M., et al. On the Relationship Between Erectile Function and Sexual Distress in Men with Prostate Cancer. Arch Sex Behav, 2020. 49: 1575.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32072396/

2053.Rosser, B.R.S., et al. The Sexual Functioning of Gay and Bisexual Men Following Prostate Cancer Treatment: Results from the Restore Study. Arch Sex Behav, 2020. 49: 1589.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31016492/

2054.Walsh, T.J., et al. Increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer among infertile men. Cancer, 2010. 116: 2140.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20309846/

2055.Al-Jebari, Y., et al. Risk of prostate cancer for men fathering through assisted reproduction: nationwide population based register study. BMJ, 2019. 366: l5214.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31554611/

2056.Le Bihan-Benjamin, C., et al. Fertility preservation and cancer: How many persons are concerned? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2018. 225: 232.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29754073/

2057.Falk, A.T., et al. Brachytherapy and fertility. Hum Fertil (Camb), 2016. 19: 85.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27308857/

2058.Terrier, J.E., et al. Decrease in Intercourse Satisfaction in Men Who Recover Erections After Radical Prostatectomy. J Sex Med, 2018. 15: 1133.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30033192/

2059.McInnis, M.K., et al. Sex After Prostate Cancer in Gay and Bisexual Men: A Review of the Literature. Sex Med Rev, 2020. 8: 466.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32169431/

2060.Guo, W., et al. Erectile dysfunction and risk of clinical cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of seven cohort studies. J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 2805.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20367771/

2061.Yamada, T., et al. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular events in diabetic men: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One, 2012. 7: e43673.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22962586/

2062.Osondu, C.U., et al. The relationship of erectile dysfunction and subclinical cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vasc Med, 2018. 23: 9.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29243995/

2063.Fan, Y., et al. Erectile dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. World J Urol, 2018. 36: 1681.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29725807/

2064.Wilkins, E., et al., European Heart Network - Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2017, Brussels.

https://ehnheart.org/cvd-statistics/cvd-statistics-2017

2065.van Bussel, E.F., et al. Predictive value of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older people: A systematic review. Prev Med, 2020. 132: 105986.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31958478/

2066.Gerdts, E., et al. Sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders. Nat Med, 2019. 25: 1657.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31700185/

2067.WHO. World Health Statistics 2019: Monitoring Health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals. 2019.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/world-health-statistics-2019-monitoring-health-for-the-sdgs-sustainable-development-goals

2068.Sandberg, K., et al. Sex differences in primary hypertension. Biol Sex Differ, 2012. 3: 7.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22417477/

2069.Everett, B., et al. Gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among young adults. Biodemography Soc Biol, 2015. 61: 1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25879259/

2070.WHO. Gender, Women And the Tobacco Epidemic. 2010.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240004849

2071.Navar-Boggan, A.M., et al. Hyperlipidemia in early adulthood increases long-term risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation, 2015. 131: 451.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25623155/

2072.Stamler, J., et al. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT)--importance then and now. JAMA, 2008. 300: 1343.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18799447/

2073.Seidell, J.C., et al. Fat distribution and gender differences in serum lipids in men and women from four European communities. Atherosclerosis, 1991. 87: 203.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1854366/

2074.Hazzard, W.R. Atherogenesis: why women live longer than men. Geriatrics, 1985. 40: 42.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3965355/

2075.Burnett, A.L., et al. Erectile Dysfunction: AUA Guideline. J Urol, 2018. 200: 633.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29746858/

2076.Mulhall, J.P., et al. Evaluation and Management of Testosterone Deficiency: AUA Guideline. J Urol, 2018. 200: 423.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29601923/

2077.Fode, M., et al. Late-onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Therapy - A Summary of Guidelines from the American Urological Association and the European Association of Urology. Eur Urol Focus, 2019. 5: 539.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30858073/

2078.Small, M.P. Small-carrion Penile Prosthesis: A Report on 160 Cases and Review of the Literature.
J Urol, 1978. 119: 365.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/642091/

2079.Bertram, R.A., et al. Implantation of penile prostheses in patients impotent after priapism. Urology, 1985. 26: 325.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4049609/

2080.Kelâmi, A. Implantation of Small-Carrion Prosthesis in the Treatment of Erectile Impotence after Priapism: Difficulties and Effects. Urologia Internationalis, 1985. 40: 343.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4090107/

2081.Mireku-Boateng, A., et al. Penile Prosthesis in the Management of Priapism. Urologia Internationalis, 1989. 44: 247.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2800061/

2082.Douglas, L., et al. Penile Prostheses in the Management of Impotence in Sickle Cell Disease. British J Urol, 1990. 65: 533.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2354322/

2083.Kabalin, J.N. Corporeal fibrosis as a result of priapism prohibiting function of self-contained inflatable penile prosthesis. Urology, 1994. 43: 401.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8134999/

2084.Knoll, L.D., et al. Management of nondilatable cavernous fibrosis with the use of a downsized inflatable penile prosthesis. J Urol, 1995. 153: 366.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7815585/

2085.Herschorn, S., et al. Penile prosthesis insertion with corporeal reconstruction with synthetic vascular graft material. J Urol, 1995. 154: 80.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7776461/

2086.George, V.K., et al. The management of extensive penile fibrosis: a new technique of ‘minimal scar-tissue excision’. British J Urol, 1996. 77: 282.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8800900/

2087.Sunduram, C.P., et al. Management of refractory priapism with penile prostheses. British J Urol, 1997. 79: 659.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9126109

2088.Rajpurkar, A., et al. Penile implant success in patients with corporal fibrosis using multiple incisions and minimal scar tissue excision. Urology, 1999. 54: 145.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10414742/

2089.Mooreville, M., et al. Implantation of inflatable penile prosthesis in patients with severe corporeal fibrosis: introduction of a new penile cavernotome. J Urol, 1999. 162: 2054.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10569568

2090.Ghanem, H., et al. Corporeal counter incisions: a simplified approach to penile prosthesis implantation in fibrotic cases. Int J Impot Res, 2000. 12: 153.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11045908/

2091.Park, J.K., et al. Implantation of penile prosthesis in a patient with severe corporeal fibrosis induced by cavernosal injection therapy. Int J Impot Res, 2002. 14: 545.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12494294/

2092.Montague, D.K., et al. Corporeal excavation: New technique for penile prosthesis implantation in men with severe corporeal fibrosis. Urology, 2006. 67: 1072.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16581112/

2093.Shaeer, O. Implantation of Penile Prosthesis in Cases of Corporeal Fibrosis: Modified Shaeer’s Excavation Technique. The J Sex Med, 2008. 5: 2470.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18624970/

2094.Durazi, M.H., et al. Penile prosthesis implantation for treatment of postpriapism erectile dysfunction. Urol J, 2008. 5: 115.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18592465/

2095.Lopes, E.J.A., et al. Corporoplasty using bovine pericardium grafts in complex penile prosthesis implantation surgery. International braz j urol, 2009. 35: 49.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19254398/

2096.Stember, D.S., et al. Ischemic Priapism and Implant Surgery with Sharp Corporal Fibrosis Excision (CME). The J Sex Med, 2010. 7: 1987.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20929513/

2097.Egydio, P.H., et al. Distal penile shaft reconstruction and reinforcement: the “double-windsocks” technique. Sex Med, 2013. 10: 2571.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23890082

2098.Razzaghi, M.R., et al. S105 The immediate insertion of a penile prothesis for prolonged ischemic priapism. Eur Urol Suppl, 2010. 9: 584.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241118841

2099.Tausch, T.J., et al. Malleable penile prosthesis is a cost-effective treatment for refractory ischemic priapism. J Sex Med, 2015. 12: 824.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25536880/

2100.Faddan, A.A., et al. Semi-rigid penile prosthesis as a salvage management of idiopathic ischemic stuttering priapism. Res Rep Urol, 2015. 7: 137.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26380229/

2101.Bozkurt, I.H., et al. Does the etiology affect the outcome and satisfaction rates of penile prosthesis implantation surgery? Kaohsiung J Med Sci, 2014. 30: 570.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25458047/

2102.Hebert, K.L., et al. Inflatable penile prosthesis implantation into scarred corporal bodies: timing may decrease postoperative problems. BJU Int, 2020. 125: 168.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31265201/